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PSY 361 Week 5 – Final Paper

May 30, 2021
Brenda I. Belcher

Transtheoretical and Health Belief Models in Chronic Illness

The course of illness can be influenced by biological, psychological, and/or social factors covering a broad range of topics that include stress, coping, and behaviors that either promote health and prevent illness, or contribute to the development of clinical problems. Health and wellness are important to our daily lives and this is true even in the context of being diagnosed with a chronic illness such as diabetes mellitus. The interplay between emotions, cognitive, and behavioral/physical factors can affect all aspects of health and illness. Individual differences such as culture, ethnicity, lifestyle, religion, gender, identity development, financial status, and social support should be considered when analyzing the individual’s response to a chronic illness. Numerous research studies have investigated the impact of one or more of these factors in terms of the effect on chronic disease outcomes. These outcomes can include symptom management and/or progression of the severity of the disease.

Explanatory theories often describe factors that contribute to health problems, or interfere with prevention activities, and thus provide targets for change. One such theory is the Health Belief Model (HBM) which addresses perceptions of the health problem. These perceptions include the degree of threat in terms of susceptibility and severity, any benefits to be obtained by avoiding the perceived threat, and various internal (e.g., self-efficacy) and external (e.g., barriers to care) factors that influence the individual’s decision to act. Other theories emphasize motivations that influence a continuum of stages of behavioral change. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change is a theory of this type. The response to chronic illness and the illness experience itself can be described by these models. In managing chronic disease, there are coping strategies and behavior changes that support optimal outcomes and therapeutic interventions can be designed for greater effectiveness by using these two models.
 
For your paper you will choose from the two options below. The option you choose will provide the focus and title for your paper.

To support your work, you will perform research using the Ashford University Library and/or other search methods to provide references to support your work. You must include a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources, published within the past five years relating to diabetes mellitus and to either the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (Option A) or the Health Belief Model (Option B). The use of additional scholarly and/or peer-reviewed references is highly recommended. These may be obtained from academic, professional, or governmental agency sources. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, non-academic websites, and media outlet sites or publications are not appropriate resources for academic writing and are not appropriate for inclusion in this paper. You may reference your textbook and other required or recommended materials from the course but these will not fulfill the minimum reference requirement.

In your paper you will provide an analysis of your research by addressing the following elements:

  • Personal impact of chronic illness
  • Impact of chronic illness on friends and family
  • Methods of coping
  • Interventions to encourage healthy lifestyle choices
  • Motivations for adhering to recommended self-care guidelines
  • Beliefs about illness that support or reduce self-efficacy and the ability to take action.

Use the following headings to organize your paper into four sections as follows:

  • Introduction:  Explain how the TTM or HBM can be used to explain the individual’s response to chronic illness
  • Body: Analyze the impact of chronic illness on friends and families, coping strategies used in chronic illness, social and psychological factors involved in the illness experience, long-term social and psychological implications of chronic illness, and therapeutic interventions based on your model
  • Conclusion: Summarize how the TTM or HBM explains the individual’s approach to illness and behavior change
  • Appendix: Complete the provided TTM table (Option A) or the HBM table (Option B), thinking of the diabetic individual’s adherence to self-care recommendations. Copy and paste your completed table into the Appendix of your paper.

This paper must include the biopsychosocial aspect of your research with emphasis on biological, psychological, and social factors. Be sure to elaborate on these factors using information drawn from your research and text readings.

Throughout your paper, include in-text citations for all statements of facts obtained through your research. Remember that direct quotes (identical phrases or sentences taken from a source) require in-text citations with appropriate formatting as described in the Ashford Writing Center. Statements of opinion should be clearly stated as such, and include a rationale to support why you hold this opinion (e.g., personal or professional experience, your research findings).

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  1. Must be five to seven double-spaced pages in length not including the title and references pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must include paragraphs of a minimum of three sentences.
  5. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  6. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  7. Must use at least three peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library.
  8. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  9. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

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