Problem-based learning is a methodology designed to help students develop the reasoning process used in clinical practice through problem solving actual patient problems in the same manner as they occur in practice. The purpose of this activity is to develop students’ clinical reasoning skills using a case-based learning exercise. Through participation in an online discussion forum, students identify learning issues in a self-directed manner which facilitates learning for the entire group.
Activity Learning Outcomes
Through this discussion, the student will demonstrate the ability to:
- Synthesize clinical knowledge, didactic learning and research findings to provide appropriate pharmacological care to primary care patients. (CO 1, 2, 3, 4, & 6)
The student must provide an initial response to the discussion topic by Wednesday, 11:59pm MT. Subsequent posts, including substantive responses to peer(s) and faculty questions must occur by Sunday, 11:59pm MT. A total of 3 substantive posts are required on 3 different days.
A 10% late penalty will be imposed for initial discussions posted after the deadline on Wednesday 11:59pm MT, regardless of the number of days late. NOTHING will be accepted after 11:59pm MT on Sunday (i.e. student will receive an automatic 0). Week 8 discussion closes on Saturday at 11:59pm MT.
A 10% penalty will be imposed for not entering the minimum number of interactive dialogue posts (3) OR not posting on the minimum required number of days (3). NOTHING will be accepted after 11:59pm MT on Sunday (i.e. student will receive an automatic 0)
Total Points Possible: 100
Case Study & Discussion Questions
John is a 46-year-old male who presents for his yearly physical examination. He has no complaints. Previous medical history is notable for obesity and hyperlipidemia. He reports a very sedentary lifestyle. He sits at a desk for 8 to 10 hours per day and when he comes home he “just wants to relax in front of the television.” He doesn’t feel motivated enough to exercise on a regular basis, although he knows he should.
John is allergic to penicillin (hives). Medications include atorvastatin 10mg daily and a multivitamin. He occasionally takes acetaminophen for a headache.
Family history is significant for diabetes (mother, maternal grandmother, paternal grandfather) and hypertension (father and brother). He is a nonsmoker and reports drinking “a few beers on the weekend during football season”. His diet largely consists of fast food meals. He drinks sweet tea with every meal and an additional 3-4 cups of coffee per day. Previous labs and exam last year are unremarkable.
Vitals today: BP 130/70 mm Hg, pulse 82 and regular, temperature 98.7, respirations 18, height 6’1”, weight 235 pounds (up 3 lbs. since his visit 1 year ago). He completed fasting labs prior to this appointment as he was instructed which reveal the following:
Fasting plasma glucose=209 mg/dl, HgbA1C=9.1%, TSH=4.0mU/L and Free T4=1.1 ng/dl. Fasting lipid panel includes the following: total cholesterol=190 mg/dL, HDL=35 mg/dL, LDL=120 mg/dL and triglycerides=260 mg/dL.
Physical exam is remarkable for obesity but is otherwise normal.
- What are your treatment goals for John?
- What is your pharmacologic plan and rationale? (cite with appropriate clinical practice guidelines or scholarly, peer-reviewed journals)
- What is the mechanism of action for each drug?
- Please give five medication teaching points for each drug prescribed.
- How would you change the plan if his initial HbgA1C was 14.0 mg/dL and his fasting blood glucose was 350mg/dL along with a urine dipstick that revealed 3+ glucose and + ketones? Provide a detailed alternative plan with the rationale.
Discussion Guiding Principles
The ideas and beliefs underpinning the discussions guide students through engaging dialogues as they achieve the desired learning outcomes/competencies associated with their course in a manner that empowers them to organize, integrate, apply and critically appraise their knowledge to their selected field of practice. The use of discussions provides students with opportunities to contribute level-appropriate knowledge and experience to the topic in a safe, caring, and fluid environment that models professional and social interaction. The ebb and flow of a discussion is based upon the composition of student and faculty interaction in the quest for relevant scholarship. Participation in the discussion generates opportunities for students to actively engage in the written ideas of others by carefully reading, researching, reflecting, and responding to the contributions of their peers and course faculty. Discussions foster the development of members into a community of learners as they share ideas and inquiries, consider perspectives that may be different from their own, and integrate knowledge from other disciplines.
Good writing calls for the limited use of direct quotes. Direct quotes in discussions are to be limited to one short quotation (not to exceed 15 words). The quote must add substantively to the discussion. Points will be deducted under the grammar, syntax, APA category.
**To see view the grading criteria/rubric, please click on the 3 dots in the box at the end of the solid gray bar above the discussion board title and then Show Rubric.
|Application of Course Knowledge||35||35%||Decisions are well supported with evidence based medicine (EBM) arguments that are in-line with the scenario; AND Proper rationale and reasoning skills are demonstrated; AND Information is taken from source(s) with appropriate interpretation/evaluation to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis of the topic at hand; AND Applies concepts to personal experience in the professional setting and/or information has relevant application to real life; AND All of the post makes direct reference to concepts discussed in the lesson; AND Posts are on topic and answer all presented questions which demonstrates a solid understanding of the topic. (6 critical elements)|
|Support from Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)||35||35%||Discussion post is supported with appropriate, scholarly sources; uses valid, relevant, and reliable outside sources to contribute to the threaded discussion; AND Sources are published within the last 5 years (unless it is the most current CPG); AND Reference list is provided and in-text citations match; AND Provides relevant evidence of scholarly inquiry clearly stating how the evidence informed or changed professional or academic decisions (4 critical elements)|
|Interactive Dialogue||15||15%||Student provides a substantive* response to at least one topic-related post of a peer; AND Evidence from appropriate scholarly sources are included; AND Reference list is provided and in-text citations match; AND Student responds to all direct faculty questions OR if student was not asked a direct question student responds to either a 2nd peer post or a faculty question directed towards another student (*) A substantive post adds new content or insights to the discussion thread and information from student’s original post is not reused in peer or faculty response (4 critical elements)|
|Total CONTENT Points= 85 pts|
|Grammar, Syntax, Spelling & Punctuation||15||15%||Discussion post has minimal grammar, syntax, spelling, punctuation, or APA format errors* (*) APA style references and in text citations are required; however, there are no deductions for errors in indentation or spacing of references. All elements of the reference otherwise must be included.|
|Total FORMAT Points= 15 pts|
|DISCUSSION TOTAL= 100 pts|