Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 6: Prevention and Social Change

Week 6: Prevention and Social Change

Sam has been home from military service for 3 months. While in Afghanistan, he was the only survivor of an explosion during a mission. In the United States, his family and friends have been celebrating his return with parties and activities. He knows they are trying to cheer him up, but he feels more and more isolated and is in chronic pain from injuries sustained during the blast. He knows he should stick to the prescribed amount of pain medication, but finds that one extra pill here and there gives him the peaceful feeling he seeks. Only 26 years old, Sam knows that he will need to find a civilian job once his leave runs out, but he feels groggy and unmotivated.

What are the potential costs to Sam and society if his dependence on his medication becomes an addiction? From which type of prevention models and programs might he benefit?

This week, you analyze risk for addiction within a specific population and strategies for risk prevention. You also analyze community-based addiction prevention strategies and develop a recommendation to promote positive social change related to addictions.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze risk for addiction in a specific population
  • Analyze strategies for risk prevention
  • Evaluate efficacy of prevention program strategies
  • Develop a recommendation for positive social change related to addictions

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Miller, G. (2015). Learning the language of addiction counseling (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  • Chapter 7, “Relapse Prevention”

Focus on counselor approaches, prevention models, techniques, and co-occurring disorders.Cheon, J. W. (2008). Best practices in community-based prevention for youth substance reduction: Towards strengths-based positive development policy. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(6), 761–779.

Focus on best practices for keeping youth from engaging in substance abuse.Wodarski, J. S. (2010). Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: A multiple site evaluation. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 7(4), 280–301.

Focus on prevention strategies for adolescent violence and alcohol abuse.Yashinsky, E. (2007). Community-based addiction treatment. Journal of Jewish Communal Service, 82(1/2), 77–82

Focus on the client-centered treatment model that is based in ongoing support.

Optional Resources

Hill, L. G., Goates, S. G., & Rosenman, R. (2010). Detecting selection effects in community implementations of family-based substance abuse prevention programs. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 623–630.

Focus on implementing community-based programs.Schaeffer, C. M., Saldana, L., Rowland, M. D., Henggeler, S. W., & Swenson, C. C. (2008). New initiatives in improving youth and family outcomes by importing evidence-based practices. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 17(3), 27–45.

Focus on the three community-based projects for substance abuse prevention and treatment.Valente, T. W., Chou, C. P., & Pentz, M. A. (2007). Community coalitions as a system: Effects of network change on adoption of evidence-based substance abuse prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5), 880–886.

Focus on the role and function of community coalitions.


Discussion: Prevention Programs for Target Populations

Much of this course has focused on individuals who have addictions or are showing signs of becoming addicted. This week, you explore prevention strategies for an at-risk population. Some programs are focused on helping populations avoid trying a substance, and some are tailored to relapse prevention. How effective are these programs? The results are mixed. For some, these programs are helpful, but many individuals still struggle with addiction. Why might these programs not be effective? Experts in the addictions field cite different reasons. Many believe that some prevention programs do not address the risk to the population they are targeting. Therefore, addictions professionals typically consider these aspects of a population before creating a prevention program. For your Assignment this week, you will research the risks associated with the population of veterans of military service and examine the ramifications of these risks to their vulnerability to addiction.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review the Learning Resources. Some of the Resources center on adolescents or other target populations. For this Discussion, focus on successful program features rather than target populations.
  • Consider a population of veterans of military service returning to their home countries. Research at least two articles on the psychological needs of returning veterans and two articles on the biopsychosocial model using credible online sources.

By Day 4

Post your response to the following:

Why might veterans of military service returning from combat be at risk for addiction? Use a biopsychosocial model to frame your responses. Include strategies for risk prevention.

By Day 6

Respond to at least one of your colleagues.

  • Include a different risk factor
  • Present a different model that might explain a risk factor(s)
  • Provide a different perspective on one aspect of a colleague’s post
  • Expand on a colleague’s post by providing a new insight
Reference

Evans, R. I. (2002). Just-say-no campaign. San Francisco, CA: Healthline. Retrieved from the Healthline website: http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/just-say-no-campaign

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 6 Discussion


Assignment: Addictions Programs

Addiction may cost individuals their relationships, jobs, and health. To society, the costs can be measured in many ways. Addictions have been linked to increases in violence and crime. Financially, the actual costs, which can be measured in health care and crime costs and lost productivity, are astronomical. In the United States alone, costs related to illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco exceeded $600 billion annually in the mid- to late 2000s (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011). Thus, every community has a program or needs a program to address addiction.

Should you choose to become an addictions professional, you may be able to make a difference in individuals’ lives. For this Assignment, select a community of your choice and research available addictions programs using credible online resources, a local library, and other sources.

By Day 7

Submit a 3- to 5-page paper that includes two sections:

Section One: Community-Based Prevention Programs

  • Briefly describe the community you selected, including demographics and geographic characteristics.
  • Describe three community-based addiction-prevention programs.
  • Describe prevention strategies used in each of the programs.
  • Explain which prevention program strategies might be most effective in each program.
  • Explain what elements might be missing from these prevention programs.

Section Two: Making a Difference

  • If you choose to work in the field of addictions, how might you contribute to positive social change within your community? Be specific and include examples based on what you have learned in this course.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2011). Drug facts: Understanding drug abuse and addiction. Bethesda, MD: NIDA. Retrieved from the NIDA website: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 6 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 6 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK6Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 6 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 6 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 6 Assignment


Final Quiz

Quizzes are included to assess your knowledge of the course content. Be sure to read all of the chapters and resources assigned this week before taking this quiz.

By Day 7

Quizzes must be completed. No credit will be given for a Quiz if completed after the week in which it is due unless prior arrangements are made with the Instructor. Exceptions will be made only for those rare situations that legitimately prevent a student from completing on time.

If you encounter technical difficulties during the Quiz or if you have questions about how an online quiz works, consider contacting the Student Support Team for more information. (The contact information is in the Student Support area.)

Click on the Week 6 Final Quiz link to access the quiz.

Submission and Grading Information

Submit Your Quiz by Day 7

To submit your Quiz:Week 6 Final Quiz


Week in Review

In this final week you analyzed risk for addiction in a specific population and the strategies used for risk prevention. In addition, you evaluated efficacy of prevention program strategies and developed a recommendation for positive social change related to addictions.

After you have completed the assignments for this week, you have finished the course. Congratulations!

Please complete the Course Evaluation and submit by Day 7.

Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 5: Treatment

Week 5: Treatment

Tadd’s wife, Sharon, gave Tadd an ultimatum: “Get help for your cocaine problem, or our marriage is over.” Tadd insisted that he just liked to party with his friends. “I can still hold down a job. In fact, I just got a promotion. So why do you care how I spend my money?”

Sharon began to research local addictions professionals. She found two organizations that sounded promising. Organization A featured counselors who had been former substance abusers themselves. “We know what you are going through,” their slogan read. Organization B featured counselors with advanced degrees in psychoanalytic theories. “We get at the heart of the defense mechanisms keeping you in the situation you are in now.”

How might an addictions professional advise Sharon? Should the fact that Tadd is demonstrating defense mechanisms impact her decision either way?

In the field of addictions, unlike in other counseling fields, it is not unusual for former substance abusers to provide counseling services to addicts. However, this common practice is controversial among addictions theorists and professionals. This week, you analyze the influence of a counselor’s personal experience on provision of addictions treatment. You also examine the impact of defense mechanisms on behavior and treatment processes.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze nature of treatment unique to addictions
  • Analyze impact of defense mechanisms on behavior
  • Analyze impact of defense mechanisms on treatment processes
  • Analyze manifestations of defense mechanisms in stages of change

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Miller, G. (2015). Learning the language of addiction counseling (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  • Review Chapter 1, “Introduction” (p. 9)
    Focus on the difference between the medical and biopsychosocial models.
  • Review Chapter 2, “Theories of Counseling Related to Addiction Treatment” (pp. 19-22)
    Focus on the goals and techniques of general counseling theories.
  • Chapter 5, “The Treatment Process for Addictions”
    Focus on crisis intervention and therapies as part of the treatment process for addictions.
  • Chapter 6, “Treatment-related Issues” (pp. 138-159)
    Focus on the difficult topics that arise in counseling settings.
  • Chapter 8, “Self-Help Groups”
    Focus on the client’s best match for available outside support.
  • Chapter 12, “Incorporating Spirituality Into Addiction Counseling” (p.408-411)
    Focus on counselor self-care and countertransference issues.
  • Chapter 13, “Personal And Professional Development Of The Counselor” (pp. 429-427, 432-435, 436-439)
    Focus on the roles and vulnerabilities of the counselor and personal experience with addiction.

Gupta, R., Nower, L., Derevensky, J. L., Blaszczynski, A., Faregh, N., & Temcheff, C. (2013). Problem gambling in adolescents: An examination of the pathways model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(3), 575–88.Problem Gambling in Adolescents: An Examination of the Pathways Model by Gupta, R.; Nower, L.; Derevensky, J.; Blaszczynski, A.; Faregh, N.; Temcheff, C., in Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 29/Issue 1. Copyright 2013 by Human Sciences Press – Journals. Reprinted by permission of Human Sciences Press – Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center.Focus on the three Pathways (pp. 577-578).Muñoz, Y., Chebat, J., & Borges, A. (2013). Graphic gambling warnings: How they affect emotions, cognitive responses and attitude change. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(3), 507–24.Graphic Gambling Warnings: How they Affect Emotions, Cognitive Responses and Attitude Change by Muñoz, Y.; Chebat, J.; Borges, A., in Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 29/Issue 1. Copyright 2013 by Human Sciences Press – Journals. Reprinted by permission of Human Sciences Press – Journals via the Copyright Clearance Center.<Focus on the Use of Graphic Images (p. 510)Suissa, A. (2011). Vulnerability and gambling addiction: Psychosocial benchmarks and avenues for intervention. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(1), 12–23.

Focus on “A Hidden Area of Vulnerability”: Internet Gambling. Read the entire article, as it is important and provides good information on gambling addiction (p. 18).

Optional Resources

Miller, G. (2010). Learning the language of addiction counseling. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • Chapter 10, “Culturally Sensitive Addiction Counseling”

Discussion: Unique Features of Addictions Treatment

A therapist specializing in childhood sexual abuse would not likely divulge his or her experience with a similar trauma. Instead, the therapist would most likely have a doctorate in psychology, counseling, or social work, and would take an objective role in therapy. However, this is not the case in addictions treatment. In fact, it was not until the mid-1970s that licensure of addictions counselors became common practice. Prior to that time, it was common for addictions counselors to enter the field with a history of substance abuse. Today, however, many view the treatment of addictions as a complex process requiring specialized skills and education.

The practice of recovering substance abusers serving as addictions professionals is one unique feature of the field of addictions. Addictions professionals should understand both sides of this argument and be familiar with other unique aspects of the addictions field.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review the Learning Resources, particularly Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling, Chapter 13, “Personal and Professional Development of the Counselor” (pp. 436-438).

By Day 4

Post your response to the following question: Does personal history of addiction and treatment make counselors more effective? Provide an informed argument based on the week’s Learning Resources and any other factors you have identified. Finally, describe two other aspects of the addiction field that are uniquely different from the general field of mental health, and explain why they are different. Be specific and use the week’s Learning Resources in your response.

By Day 6

Respond to at least one of your colleagues.

  • State why you agree or disagree with your colleague’s position on the personal history of addictions.
  • Provide a different perspective on one aspect of a colleague’s post.
  • Provide a rationale for why an aspect of the addictions field mentioned by a colleague is not unique.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 5 Discussion


Assignment: Defense Mechanisms

“Hi. I’m John, and I’m an addict.”

While this might be a cliché attributed to a well-known addiction program, it is true that the first step in treating an addiction is admitting there is a problem. This might seem easy for most, but it is a major acknowledgment for an addict. Addictions serve a purpose in someone’s life, and working to change the addiction means letting go of that purpose. People often hold on to addictions by means of defense mechanisms.

Defense mechanisms are a long-standing part of psychology stemming back to the early work of Sigmund Freud. Although many aspects of Freud’s early theories are not a part of modern clinical practice, defense mechanisms are a part of the current vernacular, including addiction treatment. Therefore, understanding defense mechanisms is an important step in providing effective treatment.

By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

  • A brief description of two defense mechanisms from the Learning Resources
  • An explanation of how each defense mechanism you chose might impact behavior
  • A description of how each defense mechanism might affect treatment processes, and an explanation of why
  • A description of which stage of change in treatment processes each defense mechanism might manifest in behavior
    • An explanation of why
    • Provide one or two strategies for mitigating them

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 5 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 5 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 5 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 5 Assignment


Week in Review

This week you analyzed the nature of treatment unique to addictions and the impact of defense mechanisms on behavior and the treatment processes. You also analyzed the various manifestations of defense mechanisms in stages of change.

In the final week you will analyze risk for addiction within a specific population and strategies used for risk prevention.

Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 4: Evaluating Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Week 4: Evaluating Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

What would you say if someone made the following statements to you?

“So what if I bought a few more toys for the kids? I can afford it.”

“It helps me relax if I walk around the block three times before going to school.”

“I don’t see anything wrong with a few glasses of wine after work. I deserve them.”

Your answer would likely depend on many factors, such as what your relationship is to these individuals, how much is “a little” or “a few,” your evaluation of what constitutes normal behavior, and how this behavior is affecting this person’s or your own life. If you knew the particulars of these situations, would you be able to determine whether these individuals were behaving normally, as they imply, or are they exhibiting signs of an addiction or a compulsion? Is there value in knowing the difference?

This week, you examine and differentiate between addictions and compulsions. In addition, you begin to learn how to assess for addictions through an intake process.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Differentiate between addictions and compulsions
  • Apply an addiction intake process to assess addiction

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Miller, G. (2015). Learning the language of addiction counseling (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  • Chapter 3, ”Assessment and Diagnosis of Addiction”
    Focus on the section titled “Interviews,” particularly on sample questions provided and the advice on clients’ potential defense mechanisms.
  • Chapter 4, “Co-Occurring Disorders and Behavioral Addictions”
    For your Discussion, focus on the section “Types of Co-Occurring Diagnoses.” As well, focus on issues with diagnosing, screening, and multiple disorders.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.)

  • “Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders” (pp. 235–256)
  • “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” (pp. 481–589)
  • Focus on the categories of the DSM-5 for these disorders. You can access the DSM-5 via the Walden Library

Garcia, F. D., & Thibaut, F. (2010). Sexual addictions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 254–260.

Focus on the similarity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors.Garcia, F. D., & Thibaut, F. (2010). Sexual addictions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 254–260.Go Ask Alice! (2009). What’s the difference between an addiction and a compulsion? Retrieved from http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/whats-difference-between-addiction-and-compulsionFocus on the similarities and differences between compulsions and addictions.Shaw, M., & Black, D. W. (2008). Internet addiction: Definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management. CNS Drugs, 22(5), 353–365.

Focus on the characteristics of Internet addiction.Wareham, J. D., & Potenza, M. N. (2010). Pathological gambling and substance use disorders. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 242–247.

Focus on the similarities between pathological gambling and substance abuse disorders.Document: Sample Intake Form (Word document)Note: You will use this document to complete this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

Hartney, E. (2011). The difference between an addiction and a compulsion. Retrieved from http://addictions.about.com/od/howaddictionhappens/a/addcompulsion.htm

Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2016). Foundations of addictions counseling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Chapter 3, “Process Addictions”

Focus on text that discusses possible differences between addiction and compulsion. See the sidebar on Internet usage.DiFranza, J. R., Ursprung, W. W. S., & Contreras, G. A. (2011). Assessment of tobacco addiction in adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health, 40(1), 65–84.

Focus on the characteristics of nicotine dependence and how nicotine addiction develops.Levine, S. B. (2010). What is sexual addiction? Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 36(3), 261–275.

Focus on the description and definition of sexual addiction.


Discussion: Compulsions and Addictions

Have you ever heard someone refer to himself or herself as a “social drinker” or “social smoker”? Many people enjoy caffeine or alcohol, spend a little too much on a shopping trip, and even gamble in moderation. For the most part, individuals are capable of engaging in these and other activities in a controllable way. Almost any behavior has the potential to transform into a compulsion or addiction, however.

Determining when a behavior is a compulsive or an addiction can be a challenging process. Although there are guidelines such as diagnostic criteria and statistics for both, there are few scientific rules regarding what constitutes a compulsion versus an addiction. Is one worse than the other? Is one more common than the other? Experts in the field of addictions typically determine what is considered healthy and normal and what is considered problematic. Addictions professionals recognize the signs of both compulsion and addiction in individuals and the difference between these two conditions.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Go Ask Alice! (2009). What’s the difference between an addiction and a compulsion? Retrieved from http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/whats-difference-between-addiction-and-compulsion
  • Review the articles “What’s the Difference Between an Addiction and a Compulsion?,” “Internet Addiction: Definition, Assessment, Epidemiology and Clinical Management,” and “Pathological Gambling and Substance Use Disorders.”
  • Review the list of behaviors provided below. When posting, try to choose a behavior that has not been discussed by one of your colleagues at the time that you post, or if all have been selected, be sure to include a new insight that has not been covered.
    • Marijuana use
    • Gambling
    • Spending
    • Hoarding
    • Nail biting
    • Technology/e-mail checking/Internet
    • Hair picking

By Day 4

Post a brief explanation of the difference between compulsion and addiction using one of the behaviors above. Then, explain why it is important to know the difference. Be specific and use the week’s Learning Resources in your response.

By Day 6

Respond to a colleague:

  • Offer polite disagreement with the colleague’s assessment of compulsion or addiction.
  • Offer an insight from your experience.
  • Offer another perspective.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 4 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 4 Discussion


Assignment: Designing an Intake Process

Assessing a client for addiction can be a challenge, especially if the client has not chosen to voluntarily seek treatment. What are the key outcomes needed from an intake process in order to effectively assess clients? This Assignment will familiarize you with the rationale and process behind assessment.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review Learning the Language of Addictions Counseling:
    • Chapter 3, ”Assessment and Diagnosis of Addiction”
    • Chapter 4, “Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Co-occurring Disorders”
  • Review the sample intake form provided as a guide.
  • Select one addiction for which you will write a paper.

By Day 7

Submit a 4- to 6-page paper that includes the following:

  • Background information on the addiction you have chosen to write about. Use at least 2–3 sources of information that describe how to assess your chosen addiction.
  • Elements of an intake process that would elicit relevant information on an individual demonstrating signs of this addiction, including the following:
    • Two addiction evaluation measures that might be appropriate for that individual, and explain why you chose them
    • Five questions you would ask to assess for addiction
    • Five questions you would not ask, and explain why these questions would be inappropriate

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 4 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 4 Assignment


Week in Review

This week you differentiated between addictions and compulsions and applied an addiction intake process to assess addiction.

Next week you will analyze the influence of a counselor’s personal experience on provision of addictions treatment and examine the impact of defense mechanisms on behavior and the treatment process.

Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 3: Physiological Effects of Substances

Week 3: Physiological Effects of Substances

This is your brain. This is your brain on drugs.

—The Museum of Broadcast Communications

What does it take to convince someone of the negative short- and long-term effects of substances so they will quit abusing them? In 1987, the Advertising Media Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA) created its largest advertising campaign ever with this slogan and an iconic image of an egg frying in a pan. The creative image took only seconds to convey the dangerous physical effects of drugs. The fragility of the brain captured by the egg sizzling in oil, and the image of frying—which has become part of the slang for getting “high”—made a lasting impression on the target audience for the PDFA campaign.

The reality is that the physiological effects of substance abuse are not always obvious from the “outside.” One cannot see a brain “frying” like an egg in a pan. Fortunately, certain hallmarks of addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, have been established that indicate to some extent whether someone is becoming or is in danger of becoming addicted. This week, you analyze the relationship between the hallmarks of addiction and the physiological effects of substances. You also evaluate the dangers of physiological effects of addictive substances and develop a communication strategy to warn against them.

Reference

The Museum of Broadcast Communications. (2013). Retrieved from
http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=publicservice

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze relationship between hallmarks of addiction and physiological effects of addictive substances
  • Evaluate physiological dangers of addictive substances

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Gilpin, N. W., & Koob, G. F. (2008). Neurobiology of alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research & Health, 31(3), 185.

Focus on understanding the stages and of alcohol dependence.National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2010). Drugs, brains, and behavior: The science of addiction. Bethesda, MD: Author. Retrieved from the NIDA website: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/science-addictionFocus on the varied approaches to the prevention and treatment of addiction.National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2011). Drug facts: High school and youth trends. Bethesda, MD: Author. Retrieved from the NIDA website: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/high-school-youth-trendsDocument: Physiological Effects of Addictive Substances (PDF)

Optional Resources

Siegel, S. (2005). Drug tolerance, drug addiction, and drug anticipation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(6,) 296–300.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2012). Foundations of addictions counseling (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

  • Chapter 2, “Substance Addictions”
    Focus on the role of tolerance and withdrawal in substance use.
  • Chapter 16, “Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Children, Adolescents, and College Students”
    Focus on the particular characteristics of adolescents that might make them vulnerable to addictions. Also focus on successful programs already established and messages that have been crafted for adolescents.

Clark, T. T. (2010). Reviewing the connection between paradigms and theories to understand adolescent drug use. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19(1), 16–32. 

Focus on some of the theories for adolescent drug use and consider how these might inform information on dangers of substance abuse.Hall, A. J., Logan, J. E., Toblin, R. L., Kaplan, J. A., Kraner, J. C., Bixler, D., . . . Paulozzi, L. J. (2008). Patterns of abuse among unintentional pharmaceutical overdose fatalities. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(22).

Focus on unintentional deaths by drug overdose involving the abuse of prescription medication.Hendricks, P. S., Prochaska, J. J., Humfleet, G. L., & Hall, S. M. (2008). Evaluating the validities of different DSM-IV-based conceptual constructs of tobacco dependence. Addiction, 103(7), 1,215–1,223.

Focus on the measurements and findings of nicotine addiction. The article is based on DSM-IV, however the DSM-5 has not changed the conceptual constructs of tobacco dependence.


Discussion: Short- and Long-Term Dangers of Substances

Addiction may look different in different individuals. There are certain hallmarks of addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, which have been established for recognizing when an individual crosses over from use, to abuse, to addiction. A distinct relationship exists between the hallmarks of addiction and the physiological effects of addictive substances.

In this Discussion, you will examine these hallmarks and the physiological effects of addictive substances as you provide an example that demonstrates their relationship.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Foundations of Addictions Counseling, Chapter 2, “Substance Addictions.”
  • Review the report, “Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction.”
  • Review the article “Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence,”
  • Review the document titled, “Physiological Effects of Addictive Substances.”

By Day 4

Post your response to the following:

What is the relationship between hallmarks of addiction and physiological effects of addictive substances? Provide an example that best describes this relationship and explain why. Provide at least one citation to support your example.

Note: The confidentiality of the Discussion cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, please do not include identifying details of actual individuals or organizations in your responses.

Be specific and use the week’s Learning Resources in your response.

By Day 6

Respond to at least one colleague:

  • Offer another perspective based on your perspective on the hallmarks of addiction.
  • Confirm or expand on someone else’s post using specific examples or insights.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 3 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 3 Discussion


Assignment: Creating Awareness of Risks

Although many new nationally known programs are available aimed at preventing substance abuse and addictions, many people develop addictions every year. The tendency to develop addiction varies with different ages, cultures, and other factors. One population that is most at risk of developing addictions is the high-school-age population. Studies have shown that adolescents perceive themselves as invulnerable to poor health (Santrock, 2010). In addition, physical development is taking place that makes them more at risk for substance abuse. The amygdala, for example, which is more driven by primitive impulses, is in a state of transition. Young adults do not have fully developed prefrontal cortexes, which are responsible for delaying gratification, controlling impulses, planning, prioritizing, and focusing, until later adolescence (Perkinson, 2012). This week, you will develop a communication tool to create awareness of the short- and long-term physiological dangers of substance addiction for this important-to-reach high-school-age population.

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review the article “Drug Facts: High School and Youth Trends”.
  • Become familiar with some graphic tools that may aid you in preparation of your poster.

By Day 7

Submit a visually interesting poster for a high-school-age population that includes the following:

  • Short- and long-term physiological effects of an addictive substance
  • A slogan or paragraph that translates facts into a compelling message for this population

Be specific and draw on the required readings for this week in the creation of your poster.

Note: Create your poster in whichever program works best for you, such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Publisher (to create a PDF), or any open-source program you choose. You may also submit a photograph of your poster as a digital file, such as a jpeg or tiff file.

References

Perkinson, R. T. (2012). Chemical dependency counseling: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Santrock, J. W. (2010). Adolescence (13th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 3 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 3 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 3 Assignment


Week in Review

This week you analyzed and evaluated the hallmarks of addiction and the physiological dangers of addictive substances.

Next week you will examine and differentiate between addictions and compulsions. In addition, you will begin to learn how to assess for addictions through an intake process.

Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 2: Theories and Models of Addiction

Week 2: Theories and Models of Addiction

“I can quit any time I want to.”

How many times have individuals with potential addictions spoken these words? If you know anyone you suspect has an addiction, you have probably heard this statement before with skepticism. How an addictions professional interprets these words depends on his or her theoretical perspective. If addiction is perceived to be a combination of behavioral and physical aspects, then the validity of the statement above might depend on whether the approach to addiction follows a particular theory or model, such as biopsychosocial, medical, or psychological.

This week, you apply addictions theory to factors that contribute to addiction.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Apply addiction theory to factors that contribute to addiction

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Miller, G. (2015). Learning the language of addiction counseling (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  • Chapter 1, “Introduction” (pp. 7-12)
    Focus on the theories of addiction and the models that define addiction.
  • Chapter 2, “Theories of Counseling Related to Addiction Treatment” (pp. 13-30)
    Focus on the theoretical framework for addiction counseling.
  • Chapter 9, “Elaboration on Specific Therapies and Techniques Relevant to Addiction Counseling” (pp. 266-292)
    Focus on the five aspects of therapy approaches, both past and present.

Potik, D., Adelson, M., & Schreiber, S. (2007). Drug addiction from a psychodynamic perspective: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) as transitional phenomena. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 80(2), 311–325.

Focus on the role of a theoretical framework for counseling during an individual’s recovery from drug addiction.Stanbrook, M. B. (2012). Addiction is a disease: We must change our attitudes toward addicts. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(2), 155.

Focus on the societal misconceptions towards addictions.Young, K. S. (2011). CBT-IA: The first treatment model for Internet addiction. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(4), 304–312.

Focus on the detection and treatment of Internet addiction

Optional Resources

Liu, C.-Y., & Kuo, F.-Y. (2007). A study of Internet addiction through the lens of the interpersonal theory. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(6), 799–804.

Focus on the relationships and state of minds that influence addiction to the Internet.Vallejo, Z., & Amaro, H. (2009). Adaptation of mindfulness-based stress reduction program for addiction relapse prevention. The Humanistic Psychologist, 37(2), 192–206.

Focus on identifying stress and its role in relapse prevention.


Discussion: Explaining Individual Nature of Addiction Through Theories

Do you ever wonder what causes addiction in some individuals and not others? Can some individuals stop using a substance or behaving in a certain way through force of will while others cannot? These are few of the many questions that theorists in the field of addiction attempt to answer.

Theories consist of ideas and explanations generated through research of the subject matter. No single addiction theory perfectly explains human behavior. Empirical evidence supports many different theories. Therefore, understanding a variety of theories is essential to create a proper set of tools to treat addiction.

Some theories of addiction focus on physical aspects. The belief is that addiction is a disease primarily involving brain circuitry that contributes to a person addictively seeking a substance or a behavior. Other theories focus more on environmental or social aspects. These particular theories focus more on factors such as self-efficacy, learned behavior, coping skills, personality, and social support. Perspectives on addiction may be called theories, models, or frameworks, and there is overlap in the definitions and usage of these terms.

In this Discussion, you apply addiction theory to answer a challenging question.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling, Chapter 2, “Theories of Counseling Related to Addiction Treatment” (pp. 19–35).
  • Review Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling, Chapter 9, “Current and Evolving Therapy Approaches and Techniques” (pp. 243–267).
  • Review “A Study of Internet Addiction Through the Lens of the Interpersonal Theory.”

By Day 4

Post your response to the following question:

Why do some individuals develop addictions while others do not? Provide three answers, each based on a different theory of addiction. Be sure to reference factors that contribute to addictions. Which theory resonates the most for you and why?

Use the week’s Learning Resources in your response.

By Day 6

Respond to at least one of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways:

  • Provide a different perspective.
  • Offer a different theory not mentioned by a colleague to support the colleague’s post.
  • Expand on a colleague’s post with research or a different learning resource.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 2 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 2 Discussion


Assignment: Theories Into Practice

When learning about a topic such as addictions, an initial step is to understand theories that contribute to the knowledge base that informs the field. For this Assignment, you will begin to translate theories into the questions you might ask to better understand factors contributing to an individual’s addiction. 

To prepare for this Assignment:

  • Review Case 1.2 in your course text, Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling, (p. 11).
  • Choose a theory from among this week’s Learning Resources to use for this Assignment.

By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

  • A list of at least 7 questions that you might ask the individual in the case to determine the main factors contributing to the individual’s addictive behaviors
  • A rationale supporting each of your questions based on the theory you selected in this week’s Learning Resources

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 2 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK2Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 2 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 2 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 2 Assignment


Week in Review

This week you applied addiction theory to factors that contribute to addiction.

Next week you will analyze the relationship between the hallmarks of addiction and the physiological effects of substances. In addition, you will evaluate the dangers of physiological effects of addictive substances and develop a communication strategy to warn against them.

Categories
PSYC 2006: Introduction to Addictions

Week 1: The Field of Addictions

Week 1: The Field of Addictions

Substance related and addictive disorders have a long and complex history. There is evidence that shows that some Peruvians in the 1450s deliberately ingested charred oyster shells to slow down the absorption rate of cocaine found in cocoa leaves (Inaba & Cohen, 2007). And early American colonists viewed alcohol as a healthy substance with curative capabilities. But terminology and our understanding of addiction have changed over time. One has only to look at how terminology surrounding alcohol has evolved over the years in the United States alone to see how attitudes toward substance use have changed, from “temperance as moderation” in the 1820s to “temperance as abstinence” in the 1840s.

Likewise, gambling goes back to ancient times. In many instances, it was also considered illegal. The Roman Emperor Augustus was believed to have had a gambling addiction, yet he imposed laws that prohibited gambling except during Saturnalia, a week-long festival honoring the God of Saturn.

This week, you apply terminology related to addictions. You also examine historical events and emerging trends in the field of addictions.

References

Inaba, D. S., & Cohen, W. E. (2007). Uppers, downers, all-arounders (6th ed.). Medford, OR: CNS Productions, Inc.

History of Gambling. (n.d.). The popularity of gambling in ancient cultures. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.thehistoryofgambling.com/

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Apply terminology related to addictions
  • Analyze historical events contributing to the field of addictions
  • Analyze trends related to the field of addictions

Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Required Readings

Miller, G. (2015). Learning the language of addiction counseling (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  • Chapter 1, “Introduction” (pp. 1–7)

Focus on the influences of addiction.Barry, C. L., Huskamp, H. A., & Goldman, H. H. (2010). A political history of federal mental health and addiction insurance parity. The Milbank Quarterly, 88(3), 404– 433.

Focus on the factors instrumental in eliminating the differences in insurance coverage for mental health and addiction treatment.Grant, J. E., Potenza, M. N., Weinstein, A., & Gorelick, D. A. (2010). Introduction to behavioral addictions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 233– 241.

Focus on the terminology and how behavioral addictions and substance use disorders are alike. Note their differences from obsessive-compulsive disorderLee, P. R., Lee, D. R., & Lee, P. (2010). 2010: U.S. drug and alcohol policy, looking back and moving forward. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42(2), 99–114. 

Focus on how language can play a role in the public’s understanding of addictions, dependencies, and diseases.National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment. (2004). Substance use disorders: A guide to the use of language. Farmington, CT: Author. Retrieved from NAABT website: http://naabt.org/documents/Languageofaddictionmedicine.pdfFocus on how language can play a role in the public’s understanding of addictions, dependencies, and diseases.

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Addictions terminology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu“Addictions Terminology” Transcript

Optional Resources

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2006). Definitions and terms relating to co-occurring disorders. Rockville, MD: Author. Retrieved from Addiction Treatment Forum website: http://www.atforum.com/pdf/DefinitionsandTerms-OP1-4.pdfHarrington, M., Robinson, J., Bolton, S., Sareen, J., & Bolton, J. M. (2011). A longitudinal study of risk factors for incident drug use in adults: Findings from a representative sample of the U.S. population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(11), 686–695.National Institute on Drug Abuse. (n.d.). About NIDA. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nidaFocus on the resources this website offers to addictions professionalsWhite, W. L. (2008). Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use by addictions professionals: Historical reflections and suggested guidelines. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 26(4), 500–535.

Focus on the ethical, legal, and clinical issues surrounding a person’s right to personal privacy as it relates to professional duties and obligations.


Discussion: Terminology Related to Addictions

Consider this passage from a psychology textbook, Ethical Conflicts in Psychology (Bersoff, 2008): “The method of adjudication for a recommended sanction of expulsion issued under Subsection 7.5 of this part is a formal hearing before a three-member Hearing Committee.”

This passage is not meant to be understood in the context of this course, but to demonstrate that, similar to the field of ethics in psychology, the field of addictions also has its own terminology employed by professionals. For example, although the terms alcohol abuse and alcohol dependent sound familiar, they have very specific and important differences in meanings within the field of psychology, and depending on which term is applied to an individual, it may affect everything from screening to treatment. Everyone may not agree on definitive definitions of terms because there are many gray areas and degrees of addiction. There are also many perspectives regarding commonly used operational definitions of terms. Even so, addictions professionals need to be familiar with the terminology of their field in order to practice effectively.

To prepare for this Discussion:

  • Review Learning the Language of Addiction Counseling, Chapter 1, “Introduction.”
  • Review the articles “Introduction to Behavioral Addictions” and “Substance Use Disorders: A Guide to the Use of Language.”  
  • Listen to the media titled Addictions Terminology, featuring four scenarios of individuals making telephone calls to addictions professionals.
    • Choose one of the four scenarios to discuss.
    • Choose from among the following terms that might be applied to individuals or situations in the audio recordings: (Note that not all of the terms will be used.)
      • Problematic use
      • Alcoholic
      • Dependent
      • Functional
      • Recovering
      • Abuse
      • Addict
      • Social user
      • Defense mechanism
      • Tolerance
      • Withdrawal

Note: In this Discussion, you are not being asked to diagnose the individual on the telephone call or the person he or she is calling to discuss, but merely to demonstrate your understanding of common terms in the field of addictions. There are no right or wrong answers.

The media is only a demonstration and does not simulate real-life scenarios. Remember that while you are not diagnosing the individual on the telephone call, if this were a real situation, the person who is answering the call, some cases, is committing a HIPAA violation by speaking with someone other than the person with the problem.

By Day 4

Post a description of one of the scenarios using two or more of the terms provided. Provide your rationale for selection of these terms. Finally, select one term that might be applicable across multiple scenarios and explain why.

Be specific and use the week’s Learning Resources in your Response.

By Day 6

Respond to at least one of your colleagues who used a term other than the ones you used in one or more of the following ways:

  • Offer polite agreement or disagreement with the usage of the term and explain why.
  • Reply using a term from this week’s Learning Resources not included in the list provided.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.
Reference

Bersoff, D. N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 4 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 1 Discussion


Assignment: Significant Events in the Field of Addictions

The history of the field of addictions brings to mind the idiom “all or nothing.” In earlier times, moderation appeared to have few proponents. The pilgrims in the United States widely accepted drinking as healthy. By the early 1800s, clergymen ushered in the temperance movement, which stigmatized drinkers as “corrupt.” Acceptability of practices such as drinking is one aspect of significance in the field of addictions that has evolved over time. Other considerations include types of addictions, treatment, intervention, and populations engaging in addictive behavior.

Familiarity with historical events in the field of addictions provides addictions professionals with a foundation for understanding emerging trends.

To prepare for this Assignment, read the following articles from the Learning Resources:

  • “A Political History of Federal Mental Health and Addiction Insurance Parity”
  • “2010: U.S. Drug and Alcohol Policy, Looking Back and Moving Forward”
  • Optional readings as you see necessary

By Day 7

Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

  • Describe two historical events that you believe contributed most to the field of addictions.
    • Explain the contribution of each event to the contemporary field of addictions.
    • Explain why you chose each event as being one of the most significant.
  • Research two websites dedicated to some aspect of the field of addictions (see Learning Resources for ideas). Analyze 2–3 trends that emerged from your review.
    • Cite the sources you used following APA guidelines.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 1 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 1 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 1

To submit your Assignment:Week 1 Assignment


Week in Review

This week you analyzed historical events and trends and applied terminology relative to the field of addictions.

Next week you will apply addictions theory to factors that contribute to addiction.