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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 5 – Final Paper

Transtheoretical and Health Belief Models in Chronic Illness

The course of illness can be influenced by biological, psychological, and/or social factors covering a broad range of topics that include stress, coping, and behaviors that either promote health and prevent illness, or contribute to the development of clinical problems. Health and wellness are important to our daily lives and this is true even in the context of being diagnosed with a chronic illness such as diabetes mellitus. The interplay between emotions, cognitive, and behavioral/physical factors can affect all aspects of health and illness. Individual differences such as culture, ethnicity, lifestyle, religion, gender, identity development, financial status, and social support should be considered when analyzing the individual’s response to a chronic illness. Numerous research studies have investigated the impact of one or more of these factors in terms of the effect on chronic disease outcomes. These outcomes can include symptom management and/or progression of the severity of the disease.

Explanatory theories often describe factors that contribute to health problems, or interfere with prevention activities, and thus provide targets for change. One such theory is the Health Belief Model (HBM) which addresses perceptions of the health problem. These perceptions include the degree of threat in terms of susceptibility and severity, any benefits to be obtained by avoiding the perceived threat, and various internal (e.g., self-efficacy) and external (e.g., barriers to care) factors that influence the individual’s decision to act. Other theories emphasize motivations that influence a continuum of stages of behavioral change. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change is a theory of this type. The response to chronic illness and the illness experience itself can be described by these models. In managing chronic disease, there are coping strategies and behavior changes that support optimal outcomes and therapeutic interventions can be designed for greater effectiveness by using these two models.
 
For your paper you will choose from the two options below. The option you choose will provide the focus and title for your paper.

To support your work, you will perform research using the Ashford University Library and/or other search methods to provide references to support your work. You must include a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources, published within the past five years relating to diabetes mellitus and to either the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (Option A) or the Health Belief Model (Option B). The use of additional scholarly and/or peer-reviewed references is highly recommended. These may be obtained from academic, professional, or governmental agency sources. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, non-academic websites, and media outlet sites or publications are not appropriate resources for academic writing and are not appropriate for inclusion in this paper. You may reference your textbook and other required or recommended materials from the course but these will not fulfill the minimum reference requirement.

In your paper you will provide an analysis of your research by addressing the following elements:

  • Personal impact of chronic illness
  • Impact of chronic illness on friends and family
  • Methods of coping
  • Interventions to encourage healthy lifestyle choices
  • Motivations for adhering to recommended self-care guidelines
  • Beliefs about illness that support or reduce self-efficacy and the ability to take action.

Use the following headings to organize your paper into four sections as follows:

  • Introduction:  Explain how the TTM or HBM can be used to explain the individual’s response to chronic illness
  • Body: Analyze the impact of chronic illness on friends and families, coping strategies used in chronic illness, social and psychological factors involved in the illness experience, long-term social and psychological implications of chronic illness, and therapeutic interventions based on your model
  • Conclusion: Summarize how the TTM or HBM explains the individual’s approach to illness and behavior change
  • Appendix: Complete the provided TTM table (Option A) or the HBM table (Option B), thinking of the diabetic individual’s adherence to self-care recommendations. Copy and paste your completed table into the Appendix of your paper.

This paper must include the biopsychosocial aspect of your research with emphasis on biological, psychological, and social factors. Be sure to elaborate on these factors using information drawn from your research and text readings.

Throughout your paper, include in-text citations for all statements of facts obtained through your research. Remember that direct quotes (identical phrases or sentences taken from a source) require in-text citations with appropriate formatting as described in the Ashford Writing Center. Statements of opinion should be clearly stated as such, and include a rationale to support why you hold this opinion (e.g., personal or professional experience, your research findings).

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  1. Must be five to seven double-spaced pages in length not including the title and references pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must include paragraphs of a minimum of three sentences.
  5. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  6. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  7. Must use at least three peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library.
  8. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  9. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 5 – Discussion

Week 5 – Discussion

5151 unread replies.6060 replies.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Coping Strategies for Chronic and Life Threatening Illness 

The focus of this discussion activity is on research regarding the coping strategies utilized by those diagnosed with a chronic illness.  Analyze one (or more) peer-reviewed article(s) that investigates coping strategies utilized by those with chronic illness.   Search the Ashford Library, using the ProQuest and EBSCOhost databases using the following keywords as assigned below according to the first letter of your last name.

Last Names beginning with:

  • A through D: Coping; HIV; AIDS
  • E through H: Coping; cancer
  • I through L:  Coping; heart disease
  • M through P: Coping; kidney disease
  • Q through T: Coping; spinal cord injury
  • U through Z: Coping; arthritis


To look for peer-reviewed articles in the library:

  • Access the Ashford Library via the online course or the Student Portal
  • Click on the link at the top of the page that says “Find Articles & More”
  • On this page, click on “Databases by Subject”
  • Click on the link for “Psychology”

First search – use the EBSCO Host database:

  • Put your keywords into the search box (e.g., punishment discipline)
  • Scroll down to the middle of the page and look for an area that says “Limit Your Results”
  • In this area, check BOTH boxes:  Full Text AND Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals
  • Now click the green “search” button at the top
  • A list of articles appears – on the top of the list is a link called “Relevance” – click on this and a drop-down menu appears – choose “Date descending” to order the articles by most recent date
  • Choose articles published within the last five years – to obtain the individual articles you want, click on the “PDF Full Text” icon to get the article (save on your computer)

Second search – use the ProQuest database:

  • Put your keywords into the search box (e.g., punishment discipline)
  • Scroll down to the middle of the page and look for an area that says “Search Options”
  • In this area, check THREE boxes:  Full Text AND Peer Reviewed AND Scholarly Journals
  • Now click the orange “search” button at the top
  • A list of articles appears – on the right side of the page, use the drop-down box to “sort results by” and choose Publication date (most recent first)
  • Choose articles published within the last five years – to obtain the individual articles you want, click on the “PDF Full Text” icon to get the article (save on your computer)

Assess how biological, psychological, and social factors related to the disorder impact the effectiveness of coping strategies.  As you construct your post, synthesize the research findings you found with regard to the factors affecting health-related behaviors and coping strategies.  Evaluate the health-related behaviors associated with coping strategies for your topic illness and explain how you might use the biopsychosocial model of health psychology to guide the development of individual coping options. Your discussion should be a minimum of 300 words, and include appropriate citations from the referenced article(s), as well as any additional scholarly and/or peer-reviewed resources you choose to include in your discussion.  Provide all resources as references in APA format.   

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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 3 – Assignment

Week 3 – Assignment

Health Care Profiles and Plans for Change

From your work in Week One, you have already read about shared decision-making aids; the Healthcare Belief Model (HBM) and Transtheoretical Stages of Change (TTM). Review resources from the Week One assignment to assist you in this assignment.

It is recognized that achieving and maintaining a normal weight is a foundational goal of good health. The Healthy People 2020 initiative, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, lists nutrition and physical activity as one of the leading health indicators (LHI) for the U.S. population. For this reason, many resources and decision aids have been developed to assist the individual in achieving this goal. Using the interactive Decision Aid at the Choose My Plate  website, you will use information from a case study to create a profile of an individual, and develop a plan for achieving and maintaining a normal weight through healthy diet choices and physical activities.

Please refer to these resources to assist you with your work:

Your paper should be organized into two sections as outlined below.
Section 1 – Case Study:  Using the Get Your MyPlate Plan (Links to an external site.) online software at the MyPlate website from the UDSA, create a profile with the information provided in the case study below.  

Case Study:  Jane is a 55 year old female, who is 5’6” tall and weighs 205 pounds.  She accumulates less than 30 minutes per day of moderate activity exercise. Once you have created the profile, you will receive dietary and physical activity information. Using this data, answer the following questions in the first section of your written paper:

Section 2 – Behavioral Change:  Complete the following three tables regarding the case study profile you developed in Section 1 of this assignment.  Copy & paste your completed tables into your assignment paper.    

Additional references are not required for this assignment.  A separate reference page is not required, unless you used citations to complete your tables. If additional references are cited, all sources must be documented in APA style and listed on a separate reference page, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Writing the Assignment
The Paper:

  • Must be 4 to 6 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center if additional references are used in the paper.
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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 3 – Discussion

Week 3 – Discussion

4141 unread replies.6161 replies.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders 

Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Before you begin, please reference the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Much of our text reading this week focuses on substance use and addictive disorders.  Using the Ashford Library, access the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5) using the instructions in the required resources section for this week and select one of the disorders in the section titled:  “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.” You will then research your selected disorder in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine or Behavioral Medicine publications.  The instructions below will assist you in your search.

  • Go to the Ashford University Library (either via the link in the left navigation or the Student Portal)
  • Click the “Advanced Search>>” link under the FindIt@AU search box
  • Enter the name of the disorder you selected from the DSM-5 into the first text box
  • Select “SU Subject Terms” in the drop-down menu next to your disorder
  • Enter Annals of Behavioral Medicine or Behavioral Medicine in the second box
  • Select “SO Journal Title/Source” in the drop-down menu next to the publication’s name
  • Click the Search button
  • Click “Relevance” and choose “Date Newest”

Read and discuss one or more articles published within the last five years in the journal listed above. If you do not generate an appropriate article in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine or in the journal Behavioral Medicine, remove the journal titles and complete a general search for your disorder.  Be sure to check the boxes next to “Limit to Full Text” and “Limit to Scholarly / Peer Reviewed”.

Utilizing the biopsychosocial perspective, explain the substance-related or addictive disorder and your research (reference article) through the model of health psychology.  In your posting, analyze how the following factors potentially contribute to risk for developing a substance use disorder synthesizing research regarding these factors in order to support your statements.

  • Biological factors
  • Psychosocial aspects
  • Prevention of the disorder
  • Treatment of the disorder
  • Reasons for relapse

Your initial post should be a minimum of 300 words and include appropriate citations from the referenced article(s) and DSM-5, as well as any additional resources you choose to include in your discussion.  Provide all resources as references in APA format.  Additional sources of information may be found in the recommended resources for Week Three.

Guided Response:  Respond substantively to a minimum of two classmates’ initial posts.  In responding, summarize your thoughts on how the factors discussed by your classmate might influence risk for developing a substance use disorder, or how the factors influence prevention, treatment, and relapse for the disorder.  Your response(s) should demonstrate that you have read any existing replies on the board.  In your response, mention information and viewpoints already expressed by existing responses to the same post.  Provide a courteous and interactive learning environment. (See the Netiquette Rules link on the About Discussions page in the left navigation if you have questions.) Continue to monitor the content board through 6:00 p.m. (Mountain Time) on Day 7 of the week and reply to anyone who has responded to your original post.

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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 2 – Assignment


Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders: Focus on PTSD

In this written assignment, you will use a variety of resources on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to evaluate and answer a series of questions on a given case study. PTSD is a recognized diagnosis in Section II: Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Specific diagnostic criteria exist for adults and children. A great deal of research has been done regarding risk factors for developing PTSD, as well as the prevention and management of this condition. Utilizing recognized resources relating to this disorder, a case study will be analyzed.   

Please look at these resources before beginning your work:

Case Study: Johnny is a 12-year-old student at Hometown Middle School. Six weeks ago, he witnessed a fight at lunch time between two students at the adjacent table in the cafeteria. During the fight, a knife was pulled and its use resulted in serious injury to one of the students. Emergency medical services (EMS) were called, and the student was removed via ambulance. Since that day, Johnny has had frequent nightmares in which he revisits the fight scene. He has refused to eat lunch in the cafeteria and instead hides in the bathroom during the lunch hour. Once this was discovered, he was brought to the guidance counselor, and his mother was called to school. Johnny insists that the cafeteria isn’t safe, and in discussion with the guidance counselor his mother mentions that Johnny insists on keeping a kitchen knife at his bedside table. Further evaluation of Johnny’s school performance demonstrates that his grades have fallen from their usual level. 
The biopsychosocial model of health psychology incorporates biological, social, and psychological factors. Based on these, evaluate the health-related behaviors exhibited by Johnny in the scenario. What health promotion (prevention) practices could be addressed? What factors might influence Johnny and his mother’s utilization of healthcare resources based on his developmental stage? Assess the scenario and comment on how psychological methods might be employed to assist Johnny in managing and coping with the situation. 

Your assignment should include the sections listed below. Each section will focus on stress-related behaviors, referral for services, risk factors, and management and prevention of a stress-related disorder. Answer the following questions, citing information from the specified resource(s) to support your writing and any statements of fact. Each question should be answered in a separate section, with a minimum of at least one paragraph (minimum three sentences). In addition to the specified resources for each section, you may include additional scholarly or peer-reviewed references relating to the topic question, but this is not required. Be sure to synthesize the information provided in the class resources regarding the factors affecting Johnny’s behaviors and choices.

 The sections listed below should be used as headings in your paper so that the following content is organized as outlined below. Explain your answers to the questions in each section:

  • Section One – Diagnosis: Using the diagnostic criteria from DSM-5, evaluate Johnny’s situation. Based on DSM-5 criteria, is he suffering from PTSD?  
    Required resource: DSM-5.
  • Section Two – Rescue Workers: What steps could rescue workers have taken to reduce the stress response of any children observing the knife fight? 
    Required resource: Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters: Police, fire, and other first responders: What rescue workers can do.
  • Section Three – Parents: What steps can Johnny’s parents take to help their child? 
    Required resource: Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters for parents of children exposed to violence or disaster: What parents can do.
  • Section Four – Referral Criteria: What symptoms indicate referral to a mental healthcare specialist? 
    Required resources: Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters for parents of children exposed to violence or disaster: What parents can do; Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters: Police, fire, and other first responders: What rescue workers can do; Coping with stress after a traumatic event.
  • Section Five – Preventing School Violence: What methods can be used to prevent school violence? 
    Required resource: Understanding School Violence.
  • Section Six – Risk Factors for Youth Violence: What are the risk factors that predict violent behaviors in youth? 
    Required resource: Understanding Youth Violence.
  • Section Seven – Risk Factors for PTSD: What are the risk factors and resilience factors regarding the developing PTSD? 
    Required resource: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
  • Section Eight – Treatments for PTSD: What treatments are available for PTSD? 
    Required resource: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Writing the Assignment
The Paper:

  • Must be four to six double-spaced pages in length not including the title and references pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must include paragraphs of a minimum of 3 sentences.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use the resources required for the assignment; you may include additional resources to support your work but these must be scholarly or peer-reviewed.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center if additional references are used in the paper. 
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PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 1 – Assignment


Promoting Health Behavior Change

Prior to beginning your work on this assignment, please read the assigned text chapters for Week One.  In addition, read pages 17-18 from the article, Theory at a Glance: A guide for Health Promotion Practice  (Links to an external site.)(National Cancer Institute, 2005).  This article includes information about the Transtheoretical model (TTM) describing stages of change across a timespan, and the Health Belief Model (HBM) describing perceptions determining an individual’s behavior change relating to health and disease.  

An additional resource includes the University of Rhode Island Cancer Prevention Research Center’s  Transtheoretical Model: Detailed Overview  (Links to an external site.)

Different biopsychosocial theoretical models have been developed to assess individual perspectives on health promotion as well as to develop effective interventions to support health promotion.   This assignment focuses on shared decision making (SDM) and the use of decision aids (DA) in health promotion as well as the analysis of a specific health promotion practice using two theoretical biopsychosocial models.  Utilization of healthcare services in the form of immunizations will be evaluated using the Healthcare Belief Model (HBM) and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of Behavioral Change.  

How does the consumer perceive and act upon vaccination (immunization) recommendations as a health promotion activity?  

For this assignment you must:

  • Create your paper by evaluating vaccinations as health promotion practices.  Create an initial paragraph that presents a thesis related to vaccinations as health promotion practices and explains how these practices impact health related behaviors.
  • Complete the three attached tables: the Health Belief Model (HBM),  download the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM),  download and the Comparison table.  download When you have filled in the tables, you will use the completed tables in the body of your paper by selecting and copying all the content, then pasting it into the body of your document.  

    Use the following resources to help guide your work:

Create your paper by evaluating vaccines as health promotion practices.
Conclude your paper by distinguishing how vaccinations are typically utilized across the lifespan from childhood through adulthood and into old age. Depending on the amount of content in your tables, your paper will be a minimum of three pages excluding title page. A reference page is not required unless you choose to use citations in your tables.

Writing the Paper
The Paper:

  • Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length not including the title and references pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must include paragraphs of a minimum of three sentences.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use the three provided tables. If citations are utilized, references must be provided, and all sources must be documented in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center if  additional references are used in the paper.  
Categories
PSY 361: Health Pyschology

PSY 361 Week 1 – Discussion

Week 1 – Discussion

5757 unread replies.7676 replies.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Biopsychosocial Evaluation of a Psychological Disorder 

Our text reading this week introduces the discipline of health psychology and reviews body systems.  This subject content provides a foundation for exploring various topics in health and illness, and how to evaluate health-related behaviors and health promotion practices across the lifespan.   The biopsychosocial model of health psychology is described.  An historical overview of its development from preceding theoretical models in psychology is provided.  We can evaluate individual healthcare choices and utilization of healthcare services using this model.  Utilizing the biopsychosocial model, research a selected psychological diagnosis and evaluate health-related behaviors and health promotion practices related to this condition from the standpoint of associated biological, psychological, and social factors.  

First, select an individual psychological disorder that is found in Section II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5), accessed via the Ashford University Library per the instructions indicated in the Required Resources list for this week. (Section II has subsections with various categories of different recognized neuropsychological conditions. Be sure to open each section to scan the various disorders in each subsection category.)  After reading through the disorders in each category, choose one for further study.   You may choose any disorder EXCEPT post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or the disorders listed in the category of Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.  You will research your selected disorder in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine publication. The instructions below will assist you in your search.

  • Go to the Ashford University Library (either via the link in the left navigation or the Student Portal)
  • Click the “Advanced Search>>” link under the FindIt@AU search box
  • Enter the name of the disorder you selected from the DSM-5 into the first text box
  • Select “SU Subject Terms” in the drop-down menu next to your disorder
  • Enter Annals of Behavioral Medicine in the second box
  • Select “SO Journal Title/Source” in the drop-down menu next to the publication’s name
  • Click the Search button
  • Click “Relevance” and choose “Date Newest”

Read and discuss one or more articles retrieved from your search that were published within the last five years in the journal listed above. If you are unable to find a current article in this publication that focuses on your selected disorder, choose another disorder or email the instructor for guidance.

Explain the research from the standpoint of the biopsychosocial model of health psychology by discussing the role of contributing biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors. Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 300 words and include appropriate citations from the referenced article(s) as well as any additional resources you choose to include in your discussion.  Provide all resources references in APA format.  Remember to also cite the DSM-5 appropriately, including the DOI for your selected disorder.  Instructions on how the DSM-5 should be cited are in a link at the top of the website when you link to the DSM-5 from the Ashford Library.