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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 6 – Final Paper

Week 6 – Final Paper

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): This framework demonstrates the combination of content expertise, information delivery expertise (pedagogy), and instructional technology implementation all used to enhance learning. 

As explained in your textbook, TPACK combines pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and technological knowledge to transform learning opportunities into student-centered opportunities for lesson engagement, global connections, and web interfacing through 21st century technology advancements. The TPACK framework demonstrates the interplay of three knowledge bases:

  • Pedagogical Content Knowledge: This area is where most teachers have their foundation as a content expert who delivers knowledge using the foundations of pedagogy.
  • Technological Content Knowledge: This area includes making content more accessible and differentiated through technology including graphing calculators, online language translators, and virtual world tours.
  • Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: This area involves advanced learning processes through the use of technology that contribute to a wider variety of differentiated instructional opportunities including iPads that have text to speech programs, SMARTboard with text magnification, and online educational games that provide immediate feedback.

Assignment Instructions

Using the classroom environment and the demographics created in Week Two, the instructional strategies that align with the CCSS in the blog created in Week Three, the unit plan created in Week Four, and the summative assessment created in Week Five, you will create the framework for a TPACK lesson plan.

  • Identify the following aspects of your lesson plan:
    • Title: The title of your lesson.
    • Grade level and basic class demographics.
    • Anticipated Outcome (Lesson Objective): This must be measurable and written to align with the CCSS.
    • Common Core State Standard: This can be from your Unit Plan.
    • NETS-T standard  downloadstandard being met.
    • Content Summary: A brief description of what you will teach for this lesson and why.
    • Materials: Provide a list of materials needed for the lesson to include hyperlinks to any internet sites or books citations.
    • Summative Assessment: This should be a two- to three-sentence summary of how you will assess the lesson.
  • Your lesson plan must address each section of the TPACK using the provided lesson plan template (see sample here  download):
    • Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Explain which teaching strategies best address the lesson’s content and concept. Be sure to include how the lesson uses multiple intelligences to promote critical thinking and problem solving in an engaging learning environment. You must also clearly explain how the Common Core State Standard (CCSS) aligns with this section.
    • Technological Content Knowledge: Explain how instructional technology will be used to compliment the lesson’s content. For example- a graphing calculator is used to check student’s algebra work or using spell check in a word document. You must also clearly explain how the CCSS and NETS standard(s) aligns with this section.
    • Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: Explain how the instructional technology device(s) included in your lesson enhance student learning and classroom organization (such as online attendance and grading). You must also clearly explain how the NETS standard(s) aligns with this section.
  • Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK):
    • Analyze how your lesson integrates Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) to fully address TPACK in the creation of an engaging lesson that differentiates instruction, makes global connections through 21st century technological advancements, encourages critical thinking, and demonstrates content area expertise. The analysis will be at least two pages.

The assignment should be a minimum of four pages in length, not including the title and reference pages, and must include reference to the course text and two additional resources (scholarly article or online resource). The assignment must be cited in proper APA format. A title and reference page must be included.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 6 – Discussion

Week 6 – Discussion

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 Curriculum Barrier Case Study 

Robert, a 9th grader, is very popular because of his wonderful sense of humor, his respect for teachers, and his expertise in military vehicles. Robert also happens to have Spina Bifida, which confines him to a motorized wheelchair due to his limited mobility and limb strength. His disability negatively impacts his access to reading materials because of the motor coordination it takes to hold a book. Robert is fully included in the general education classroom but struggles to keep up with grade-level reading and written assignments. 

The 9th grade social studies teacher is beginning a history unit specifically on the Civil War and has asked you to help evaluate the elements of this unit in regard to Robert’s strengths, areas of need, level of readiness, barriers that will impact his learning, as well as differentiated instruction strategies and instructional technology to overcome those barriers. 

Your peer, the 9th grade social studies teacher, has provided you with the unit elements, requirements and Robert’s characteristics. 

Unit Elements & Requirements

  • Subject Matter: Civil War (events leading up to, the event, event outcome)
  • Group Discussions
  • Workbook/ Worksheet & Textbook Reading
  • Videos
  • Written Homework Assignments
  • Summative Unit Assessment


Student Characteristics

  • Loves military vehicles
  • Good sense of humor
  • Respectful
  • Auditory Learner
  • Logical/ Mathematical Thinker
  • Limited Mobility
  • Limited motor coordination
  • Can use a computer but due to limitations, slow typist


DISCUSSION QUESTION: Using this Case Study information and past discussions you have had with this teacher:

  1. Provide a list of at least two differentiated instruction strategies and two instructional technologies to overcome those barriers specific to this unit plan. 
  2. Explain how each instruction strategy and instructional technology device fit into the TPACK framework.
  3. Explain how safe, legal, and ethical use of digital information and technology, including the respect for copyright, intellectual property, and the appropriate documentation of sources will be incorporated into the lesson. 
  4. Provide additional webpages, journal articles, and videos that the teacher can also use for future reference (cited in APA formatting).


Guided Response: Reply to two peers taking the role of the 9th grade social studies teacher. Use the suggestions made by your peers to create a mini lesson including alignment with the Common Core State Standards (Links to an external site.); a one-day lesson objective, and a description of the activity in which the whole class will participate; any integrated technology; and how you will assess student learning. 

(Be sure to check back with your initial post often to continue the discussion with your peers).

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 5 – Assignment

Week 5 – Assignment

Differentiated Assessment

Over the past four weeks you’ve had the opportunity to create a classroom environment that supports the foundations of differentiated instruction (DI), brainstorm differentiated strategies that align with the Common Core State Standards, and create the foundation for a unit plan based that incorporates instructional technology while adhering to UDL and DI principles. 

This week, you will use what you’ve learned to create a summative assessment for the unit plan you created using one of the strategies from your PLC blog, and with the classroom environment you’ve outlined in Week Two. 

This summative assessment must:

  1. Identify the Common Core State Standard being assessed for mastery (it can be the same one you used in Week Four’s assignment).
  2. Identify a unit goal that aligns with the Common Core State Standard.  

For example: The students will (Measurable Verb) by (A specific outcome with a specific tool) with ___% accuracy. 

  • Measurable mastery – Describe how mastery can be measured. (e.g., classify, discriminate, create, construct, defend, predict, evaluate, etc.). Be sure to avoid subjective words such as know, understand, learn, or appreciate.
  • A specific outcome – Explain what students will do to demonstrate mastery. (e.g., skill or knowledge that has been gained as a result of this unit).
  • Measurable progress – Identify the tool that will be used to measure mastery. (e.g., project, journal, test, etc.).
  • Proficiency Level – Determine the acceptable level of achievement to demonstrate mastery.
  1. Create three formative assessments using the three day lesson plan outline from the unit plan. Be sure that each formative assessment addresses:
    • a unique, differentiated teaching strategy for each day’s lesson,
    • multiple intelligences,
    • student’s different learning styles, and
    • how the assessment results will be used to drive instruction.
  2. Create a summative assessment that appraises mastery of the Common Core State Standard and the Unit Objective. Be sure to use the summative assessment outline plan from the unit plan. The summative assessment must include:
    • Directions to complete the assessment written using vocabulary and terms geared towards your identified student population.
    • A rubric that clearly details how each part of the assignment will be graded.
    • Provisions for addressing multiple intelligences and various learning styles.

The assignment should be a minimum of five pages in length, not including the title and reference pages, and must include reference to the course text and one additional resource (scholarly article or online resource). The assignment must be cited in proper APA format. A title and reference page must be included.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 5 – Discussion

Week 5 – Discussion

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 Classroom Assessment 

Tomlinson (2001) described differentiated assessment as an ongoing process through which teachers gather data before, during, and after instruction from multiple sources to identify learners’ needs and strengths. In a quality class that is built on the foundation of differentiation, the teacher will infuse a constant stream of assessments (before, during, and after) to help identify student’s needs and to help improve learning. 

Use the information in your text and from the following websites and video to explore definitions, explanations and examples of pre-assessments, formative assessments, and summative assessments.

Instructions

After viewing the resources:

  • Explain the role of assessment as it applies to theoretical foundations of differentiated instruction. 
  • Describe how assessment can be created that evaluates a student’s true knowledge without bias towards language barriers, learning differences, or cultural differences. 
  • Choose one differentiated assessment strategy (either pre, formative, or summative) from the course text (or from the recommended websites or video) and present a rationale for using the assessment to meet the needs of diverse learners and how it will be used to drive future instruction. 

Guided Response: Review and evaluate at least two of your peers’ discussion postings. Does the assessment choice and rationale for assessments effectively meet diverse learner needs without being biased towards language proficiency, learning style preference, or cultural background? Provide suggestions for how to collect and analyze the assessment data based on the identified assessment strategy. In addition, propose at least one solution for students whose assessment results indicate a lack of progress.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 4 – Assignment

Week 4 – Assignment

Creating a Unit Plan

Once you’ve gotten to know your students through learning profile inventories that identify individual areas of strength and learning styles, you can design multimodal lessons that incorporate instructional technology that engage the 21st century learner. This week, you will create a three-day unit plan outline that addresses students’ diverse learning styles and multiple intelligences, acknowledges cultural and language differences, and integrates digital tools and technology.

Using the textbook as guidance, create a Unit Plan outline, using the provided template  download that includes: 

Introduction: Describe the demographics of your current (or fictional classroom) including:

  • Grade Level and Subject Area
  • Total number of students – ability levels, gender, students with special needs, English Language Learners (ELLs)
  • Other relevant information (such as socioeconomic status, family background, recurring behavior issues, etc.)

Stage 1: The first stage is to determine the “Big Picture”; what you want students to learn, conceptually, at the unit’s conclusion. You must:

  • Identify the content, unit title, unit subject, and at least one Common Core State Standard (CCSS) that aligns with the unit.
  • Create at least two measurable unit objectives that align with the CCSS.
  • Describe what you want the students to master including key concepts, “big ideas”, and major understandings (see the textbook, Chapter 4 for guidance).

The following resources are helpful when creating Stage 1:

Stage 2: The second stage outlines evidence of learning including pre-assessments, formative assessments, and a summative assessment.

  • Pre-assessment: Explain how you will measure student’s level of readiness and preexisting knowledge specific to the content chosen. Include how you will take into account student strengths, interests, and learning needs.
  • Formative Assessment: Explain how you will use formative assessments to drive differentiated instruction throughout the unit specific to the content you’ve chosen. Be sure to include how these assessments address UDL principals.
  • Summative Assessment: Design a summative assessment that will measure the student’s level of unit mastery. You must include how this assessment addresses UDL principals and DI theory and how the assessment takes into account your diverse student population.

Stage 3: The final stage of the unit plan involves developing the activities and experiences, building upon what you determined in Stage 1. “This stage involves tailoring learning activities to the identified strengths, learning styles, and interests of students, organizing lessons in a meaningful way that emphasizes the relevance of the learning, and engaging the learners with active learning strategies”(Chapter 4, pp. 5-6). In addition, this stage should also incorporate self-regulation strategies (behavior management).

In Stage 3 you must:

  • List the daily breakdown of lesson topics to meet the final unit goal and that also addresses differentiated instruction and UDL. For example:
    • 9th Grade English, Unit: Character Analysis
    • Unit Goal: Students will use a word processing program to write an analysis of Holden Caulfield (main character in The Catcher in the Rye) and how his behavior is indicative of typical adolescence
    • Day 1: Pre-assessment, introduction to book
    • Day 2: Watch parts of “Dead Poet Society” with discussion
    • Day 3: Writing Prompt (based on initial book chapters)
    • Days 4-5: Graphic organizer- begin building character analysis with teacher-selected partner
  • Describe how each daily activity incorporates differentiated instruction and UDL.
  • Discuss two technology tools that will be incorporated throughout the unit including how each addresses differentiated instruction, how each will be used to aid instruction and how each is an example of universal design. Be sure to support with evidence from at least one scholarly source.
  • Describe which self-regulation strategies have been built into the lesson and how they are reinforced and differentiated depending on the student’s level of need.

Instructive tools to consider for your lesson:

Use your course text and at least two other sources (either scholarly article or online resource). Your paper will be formatted according to APA guidelines including title and reference pages.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 4 – Journal

Week 4 – Journal

Creating a Career Goal

Developing a career goal is a great way to take charge of planning your career and a useful tool to manage your career effectively. Many individuals may not know how to develop a career goal; follow the steps below to help you determine where to start. There are a few steps that can be helpful in determining your career goal, which include: conducting a self-assessment, exploring industries and careers, and determining factors that are non-negotiable (e.g., geographic location, salary requirements, and health care benefits). The final step of goal setting is writing the first draft of your goal. 

Using the document at this link: Career Goal Sheet  download, review Steps 1 and 2, then complete Steps 3 and 4. Submit the completed Career Goal Sheet as your journal entry for Week 4.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your journal entry.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 4 – Discussion

Week 4 – Discussion

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 UDL & Differentiation 

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) can be defined as “a set of principles for curriculum development that gives all individuals equal opportunities to learn” (CAST, n.d.). 

Differentiation can be defined as meeting students at their current level of readiness and then planning instruction around individual needs. When combining these two theories, classroom instruction becomes engaging, dynamic, and inclusive. 

Using one of the following free online presentation tools listed below, create an interactive presentation that:
a)    Compares and contrasts the two concepts
b)    Explains how you envision blending the concepts in your current or future classroom.


In your presentation be sure to include:

  • How you will present new information
  • How students will demonstrate their prior background knowledge
  • Your strategies to engage and motivate students
  • At least two scholarly resources from Ashford’s Online Library or Google scholar relating to the theoretical foundation of UDL and/or differentiation.
  • All in-text citations included must be cited in APA format at the conclusion of your post.

Post your link along with a brief introduction in your initial post. 

Free Online Presentation Tools

Guided Response: Review at least two of your peers’ presentations and address the following questions:

  • Do you think that each concept has been fully explained? Why or why not? Using the information provide, do you feel children will be engaged and motivated in this classroom?
  • What additional suggestions that are supported by your textbook or research-based articles to improve each concept’s explanation and to keep students engaged in learning?

Online Tutorials:

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 3 – Assignment

Week 3 – Assignment

CCSS & Differentiated Classrooms

What we have learned so far in this course is that students come to us from diverse backgrounds and have their own unique learning needs. We have also learned that the systems of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are grounded in differentiated instructional practices to form the basis of quality curriculum.

As noted in Week Two, you participate in your school’s Professional Learning Community (PLC) as developing experts in implementing differentiated instruction. For this assignment, you will create the content for a blog (not actually creating the blog at this time) that identifies differentiated assessment and teaching strategies. These strategies can be used to assess student mastery of the new Common Core State Standards while providing engaging and rigorous classroom instruction. 

For the purpose of this assignment, you will be using a Word document (two to three pages) to create a prospective blog that can be designed online at another time.


Within your blog, you must:

  • Describe (in general) the standards for mathematics.
  • Describe (in general) the standards for English language arts.
  • Summarize the Common Core State Standards initiative including their purpose (i.e., the expectations of the CCSS) and academic impact.
  • Discuss how differentiated instruction is an essential strategy for the CCSS.
  • Explain five or more differentiated strategies, tools, or activities that will support teachers’ implementation of the CCSS for mathematics.
  • Explain five or more differentiated strategies, tools, or activities that will support teachers’ implementation of the CCSS for English language arts.

Use your course text and at least two scholarly articles from the Ashford University Library or Google Scholar to support your research. Your paper will be formatted according to APA guidelines including title and reference pages.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 3 – Discussion 2

Week 3 – Discussion 2

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 Web Quest for Differentiation 

Examine “All Children Can Learn  download“. Then, search the web for effective, evidence-based differentiated strategies that are engaging, motivating, and address the needs of individual learners. 

First, provide five evidence-based strategies:

  • Two instructional strategies (i.e., graphic organizers),
  • Two instructional tools (e.g., technology tool, device or iPad App, Web Quests, etc.),
  • One activity (e.g., Think-Pair-Share).

Second, for the two instructional strategies you listed explain how you can alter each to address the classroom needs you designed in Weeks One and Two and how the modification is relevant to the theory of differentiation.

Guided Response: Choose one of the five strategies identified by at least two of your peers. Evaluate the real-world application of this strategy and offer at least one suggestion, supported by the research (cite your sources), to make it accessible to a population who may have been overlooked including students with special needs, English language learners, gifted students, or another unique population.

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EDU673: Instruct. Strat. for Differentiated Teach & Learn

EDU673: Week 3 – Discussion 1

Week 3 – Discussion 1

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Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

 Common Core State Standards (CCSS)

Chapter 5 states:

Differentiated instruction is built on a foundation of effective teaching practices. Quality curriculum is one of these defining principles, as what is taught serves as the basis for how it is taught. Quality curriculum has its basis in standards, or descriptions of student outcomes in content areas. (Puckett, 2013, Chap. 5, Introduction)

However, many educators have concerns regarding these new standards for various reasons outlined in Chapter 5 in the textbook including, but not limited to:

  • Lack of training to implement the new standards
  • A realistic view of standard mastery of students with special needs
  • Too much government control over creative freedom of instruction
  • How these new standards will be implemented on such a large scale

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are meant to provide educators and parents with a consistent and clear understanding of student expectations. While written to address English Language Arts and Mathematics, the CCSS address college and career ready knowledge and skills in preparing students to transition from high school to college. 

Assignment Instructions:

First, read Chapter 5 of the course text. Then view the webinar, “Common Core State Standards: Where Does Differentiating Fit”. 

Next, read and respond to the following scenario: 

Ms. Phillips instructs in a middle school inclusion class with 20 ‘typical’ students, three students who have an IEP for a Specific Learning Disability, one student who has an IEP for “Other Health Impairment” (ADHD) and two students who are identified as ELL.  Her class is beginning with a unit on the American Civil War that will focus on the significance of the Civil War Battle and the reason and significance behind President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.

As the unit starts, Ms. Phillips provides her students with a KWL chart to share what they already know about the Civil War 

Week2Discussion_1_Image.JPG

Example of a Student Response to the KWL Chart (Creately, 2011)


After reviewing the student’s KWL charts (see an example above), Ms. Phillips realizes that she should integrate differentiated strategies to provide a more well-rounded and accurate understanding of the topic and to make it more personally relevant. 


For this discussion:

  • Create two measurable lesson objectives that are aligned with one Common Core Standard. For each of the objectives, create two differentiated strategies designed to master the objective. 
  • Explain how the strategies you’ve suggested are engaging to diverse learners. 
  • Cite scholarly sources to support how your strategies are examples of differentiation. 


Guided Response: In your guided responses to two peers, the task requires you to assume the role of a school administrator. For each response, please evaluate the alignment of one specific lesson objective with its CCSS and provide additional or alternative, differentiated strategies based on your evaluation.