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ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting NU310 Research Guided Evidence Based Nurse Practice

NU310 Unit 6 Discussion

Discuss an ethical dilemma that you have encountered in your clinical practice. Using the ethical principles as delineated by the Belmont Report, explain how this ethical dilemma could have been prevented or solved.

Unit 6 Discussion Topic 2 Discussion Topic

Task: Reply to this topic

Define and discuss what the Institutional Review Board (IRB) is and why it is important to the protection of human subjects in research.

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ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting NU333 Health Assesment for the Nursing Professional

NU333 Unit 7 Discussion

Neurologic Assessment

D. A. is a 68-year-old man with a history of insulin-controlled diabetes. He has come to the emergency department because of burns on his feet. He soaked his feet in the morning and then put on his socks and work boots. After he returned home and took off his shoes and socks, he discovered that the skin of his feet was completely burned off. He states he did not notice a thing all day because his feet are “always numb and tingling” (Jarvis, 2012).

  • What are your first nursing actions after you assume care of this patient?
  • What neurologic assessment techniques would be important to include in this patient’s assessment?  Provide a rationale for the use of these techniques.
  • What subjective data would you collect from this patient?
  • How would you educate this patient related to his reason for seeking care? Provide supporting evidence for your education.
Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 6: The Future of Corrections

Week 6: The Future of Corrections

In the beginning of the course, you explored the history and evolution of corrections. In doing so, you examined historical themes that continue to persist in the contemporary correctional system. Now, you will look to the future of corrections. What existing themes or trends might impact how the correctional system operates in the future? What can you do to positively influence the correctional system in the future?

This week, you consider these questions and others as you reflect on the future of corrections.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze the impact of existing corrections trends on the future of corrections
  • Apply knowledge of corrections to positive social change    

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Krisberg, B. A., Marchionna, S., & Hartney, C. J. (2018). American corrections: Concepts and controversies (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 15, “The Privatization of Corrections” (pp. 364–391)American Corrections: Concepts and Controversies, 2nd Edition by Krisberg, B. A.; Marchionna, S.; Hartney, C. J. Copyright 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Krisberg, B. A., Marchionna, S., & Hartney, C. J. (2018). American corrections: Concepts and controversies (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 16, “The Politics and Future of Mass Incarceration” (pp. 392–417)
Note: Each chapter in the bullet list above links to a downloadable PDF.American Corrections: Concepts and Controversies, 2nd Edition by Krisberg, B. A.; Marchionna, S.; Hartney, C. J. Copyright 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: the essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 17, “Corrections in the 21st Century” (pp. 372–388)Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Eisenberg, A. K. (2016). Incarceration incentives in the decarceration era. Vanderbilt Law Review, 69(1), 71–139.Penal Reform International. (n.d.). Global prison trends series. Retrieved from https://www.penalreform.org/resource/global-prison-trends-series/

Required Media

Van Buren, D. (2017, November). What a world without prisons could look like [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/deanna_van_buren_what_a_world_without_prisons_could_look_like


Discussion: The Future of Corrections

In this Discussion, you explore the impact of current correctional trends on the future of corrections. This week’s Learning Resources provide information about several different trends; however, it is also a good idea to do your own research as trends can quickly come and go. As you think about which trends will have a lasting impact on the future correctional system, it is important to consider how the social, economic, and political context might affect the impact and persistence of some trends over others. You may find it useful to revisit Learning Resources from the beginning of the course about the social, economic, and political factors that prompted major reforms in the correctional system.

To upload your media to this Discussion thread, use the Kaltura Media option from the mashup tool drop-down menu. Refer to the Kaltura Media Uploader area in the course navigation menu for more information about how to upload media to the course.

By Day 3

Post a 3- to 5-minute video in which you respond to the following questions:

  • Which corrections trend do you think will have the most lasting impact on the future of corrections? Why?
  • How will this trend positively and/or negatively affect the future of corrections?

By Day 5

Respond to at least two colleagues:

  • Choose a response that is different from your own.
  • Offer an additional explanation for how the trend your colleague discussed might positively or negatively impact the future of corrections. 

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:Week 6 Discussion


Journal: Corrections and Social Change

Throughout the course, you have considered many social justice issues related to the correctional system, such as the inhumane treatment of inmates, disparities in sentencing, disproportionate punishments, and racial bias and discrimination. As a Walden student, you are encouraged to carry out the university’s mission of social change by seizing opportunities to make positive and lasting impacts in your profession and community. In this Journal, you consider how you will use your newfound knowledge about corrections to effect positive social change. 

By Day 7

Write a 300-word Journal response to the following prompt:

  • How will you use what you learned about the correctional system to effect positive social change as a private citizen and/or in your current or future role as a criminal justice practitioner? Be specific.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Journal for review and grading, do the following:

  • Click the Week 6 Journal Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 6 Journal link. 
  • Next, click Create Journal Link.
  • In the title box, enter the title of the Journal Entry. Please title it: WK6Journal+last name+first initial.
  • In the Entry Message box, type your Journal Entry or click Browse My Computer and select the document you saved as “WK6Journal+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • Click Post Entry.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 6 Journal Rubric

Submit Your Journal by Day 7

To submit your Journal:Week 6 Journal


Week in Review

This week, you reflected on existing themes or trends that might affect how the correctional system operates in the future.

Congratulations! After you have finished all of the assignments for this week, you have completed the course. Please submit your Course Evaluation by Day 7.

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 5: Correctional Practices in Community Settings

Week 5: Correctional Practices in Community Settings

Each year, it costs billions of dollars to incarcerate criminal offenders. In addition, millions of families struggle with financial and emotional hardships due to the offender’s lost income and absence as a spouse and/or parent. Children who grow up with a parent in prison often suffer more mental health issues and educational challenges than children who do not. Therefore, there is growing interest in community-based alternatives to incarceration.

This week, you explore community-based alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion, probation, and parole. You also consider issues and challenges related to offender reintegration into society.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate the role of shaming in reintegration programs
  • Develop a community-based corrections plan
  • Apply labeling theory to criminal behavior    

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Hanser, R. D. (2017). Introduction to corrections (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 5, “Probation” (pp. 104–127)Introduction to Corrections, 2nd Edition by Hanser, R. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.    
Hanser, R. D. (2017). Introduction to corrections (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 15, “Parole and Reintegration” (pp. 370–395)
Introduction to Corrections, 2nd Edition by Hanser, R. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.    
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 9, “The Corrections Experience for Staff” (pp. 188–211)Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.    
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 10, “Community Corrections: Parole and Prisoner Reentry” (pp. 212–235)
Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.    
Berman, G., & Adler, J. (2018). Toward misdemeanor justice: Lessons from New York City. Boston University Law Review, 98(3), 981–997.Kamenetz, A. (2015, April 28). Delinquent. Dropout. At-risk. When words become labels.Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/04/28/399949478/delinquent-dropout-at-risk-whats-in-a-nameKopak, A. M., & Frost, G. A. (2017). Correlates of program success and recidivism among participants in an adult pre-arrest diversion program. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(4), 727–745.

For this article, skip the Methods, Measures, and Results sections on pages 732–741.
Wilson, D. B., Brennan, I., & Olaghere, A. (2018). Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14, 1–89.

For this article, skip the Objectives, Methods, and Results sections on pages 14–27.

Required Media

Steinberg, R. (2018, April). What if we ended the injustice of bail? [Video file].Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/robin_steinberg_what_if_we_ended_the_injustice_of_bail

Optional Resources

Serial Productions. (Producer). (2018). Serial: A madman’s vacation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-three/8/a-madmans-vacation    Serial Productions. (Producer). (2018). Serial: Some time when everything has changed [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-three/9/some-time-when-everything-has-changedSerial Productions. (Producer). (2018). Serial: You’ve got some Gauls [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-three/2/youve-got-some-gauls


Discussion: Does Shaming Have a Place in Reintegration?

A woman drives on a public sidewalk to get around a stopped school bus. The judge sentences her to stand on a busy street corner for two days holding a sign that reads, “Only an idiot would drive on the sidewalk to avoid a school bus.” Is this type of shaming effective?

The use of shaming as a punishment and a deterrent has gained traction in recent years, especially amidst concerns of prison overcrowding. In this Discussion, you examine whether shaming is a useful tool in the reintegrative process. In doing so, you consider the work of Australian criminologist John Braithwaite, whose theory of reintegrative shaming suggests that some types of shaming are useful while others are destructive.

By Day 3

Post a response that addresses the following:

  • Is shaming a useful tool in reintegration programs? Why or why not? Support your argument with professional experience and theories (e.g., Braithwaite’s reintegrative shaming theory) from this week’s Learning Resources.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two colleagues:

  • Choose a response that is different from your own.
  • Respectfully challenge or add to your colleague’s argument.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:Week 5 Discussion


Assignment: Community-Based Corrections Plan

In 2018, citizens of California voted in support of Proposition 57, a law allowing non-violent offenders to be eligible for parole before they completed their sentence. As a result, thousands of offenders were released into communities that were ill-prepared to offer adequate supervision and reintegration services, leaving many vulnerable to recidivism.

Given the passage of laws, such as Proposition 57, and the decarceration movement, criminal justice practitioners must be knowledgeable about community-based alternatives to incarceration and best practices for helping newly released offenders successfully reintegrate into their communities.

For this Assignment, imagine that the deputy mayor of your city contacts you to arrange a meeting to discuss how to reduce the number of inmates in local jails and prisons due to overcrowding. How would you respond? What plan would you put into place?

By Day 7

Submit a 1,000- to 1,200-word plan to inform the deputy mayor of the community-based alternatives to incarceration.

Organize your plan into the four parts noted below. Each part should address for your audience the details and questions below, and your response should have the characteristic of a proposal that presents a solution or answer to each question.

Part I: Diversion

In 250–300 words, address the following questions:

  • In what circumstances would diversion be an appropriate alternative to arrest and incarceration? Be specific and support your response by referring to labeling theories.
  • Which types of diversion programs would you recommend implementing in response to the crime problems in your city (or a city close to you)?

Part II: Probation

In 250–300 words, address the following questions:

  • In which circumstances would probation be an appropriate alternative to incarceration?
  • Which specific probation conditions do you think would be most effective for preventing recidivism and why?
  • Which aspects of probation do you think probationers would find most challenging?

Part III: Parole and Reintegration

In 250–300 words, address the following questions:

  • Is early release from prison a good strategy to reduce overcrowding? Why or why not?
  • What are the primary challenges parolees might encounter during parole and reintegration? What factors might contribute to and detract from their success?
  • Which community resources or programs would you recommend to ensure parolees’ success and reduce the likelihood of recidivism?

Part IV: The Role of Supervision

In 250–300 words, address the following questions:

  • What are the roles of probation and parole officers in the supervision of probationers and parolees?
  • How can you avoid or address the most significant challenges probation and parole officers encounter in their day-to-day activities?
  • If you were given approval to hire additional probation and parole officers, what are some of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and dispositions you would look for in candidates? What kind of training would you recommend?

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 5 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 5 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK5Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 5 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 5 Assignment


Journal: What’s in a Label?

In this week’s Discussion, you explored Braithwaite’s theory of reintegrative shaming. This theory falls under the broader umbrella of labeling theories, which suggest that labeling a criminal offender as “deviant” or “bad” increases the likelihood that he or she will continue to reoffend. Labeling often begins during an arrest and continues as the offender stands before a judge and serves his or her sentence. It can also occur outside of the criminal justice system once friends, family members, and co-workers learn of the crime.

In this Journal, you consider how labeling contributes to the criminal path of first-time offenders. You also explore how diversion strategies may be a viable alternative for first-time offenders.

By Day 7

Write a 300-word Journal response to the following prompts:

  • How can labeling affect the criminal path of first-time offenders?
  • What diversion strategies could be used as alternatives for first-time offenders?    

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Journal for review and grading, do the following:

  • Click the Week 5 Journal Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 5 Journal link. 
  • Next, click Create Journal Link.
  • In the title box, enter the title of the Journal Entry. Please title it: WK5Journal+last name+first initial.
  • In the Entry Message box, type your Journal Entry or click Browse My Computer and select the document you saved as “WK5Journal+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • Click Post Entry.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5 Journal Rubric

Submit Your Journal by Day 7

To submit your Journal:Week 5 Journal


Week in Review

This week, you explored community-based alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion, probation, and parole. You also considered issues and challenges related to offender reintegration into society.

Next week, you reflect on existing themes or trends that might affect how the correctional system operates in the future.

Next Week

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 4: Correctional Practices in Institutional Settings

Week 4: Correctional Practices in Institutional Settings

In the late 1700s, the Quakers used the word penitentiary to refer to the first prison in the United States. In Latin, penitentiary means repentance. The Quakers intended prisons to be a place where serious criminal offenders could repent their sins through prayer, reflection, and solitude. While the contemporary prison system bears some resemblance to its historical counterpart, today’s prison system is much more complex, controversial, and challenging.

This week, you examine issues and challenges related to the contemporary prison system. You also consider how specific correctional practices can be applied to address those issues and challenges.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate arguments for and against the use of supermax prisons
  • Apply best practices to address issues and challenges related to prison overcrowding
  • Analyze the ethical and legal issues related to the treatment of inmates
  • Recommend policy changes to reduce overcrowding and improve prison conditions
  • Analyze circumstances under which rehabilitation is effective and ineffective
  • Evaluate whether rehabilitation is worth the cost    

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Krisberg, B. A., Marchionna, S., & Hartney, C. J. (2018). American corrections: Concepts and controversies (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 6, “Prisons” (pp. 120–153)American Corrections: Concepts and Controversies, 2nd Edition by Krisberg, B. A.; Marchionna, S.; Hartney, C. J. Copyright 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 4, “Ethics and Corrections” (pp. 64–79)Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 6, “Jails and Detention Centers” (pp. 108–133)Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 15, “Correctional Programming and Treatment” (pp. 326–345)
Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Andrews, M. (2015, September 30). Even in prison, health care often comes with a co-pay. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/09/30/444451967/even-in-prison-health-care-often-comes-with-a-copayFord, M. (2015, June 8). America’s largest mental hospital is a jail. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/06/americas-largest-mental-hospital-is-a-jail/395012/Helfgott, J. B. (2016). Prison-based cognitive behavioral treatment programs—A mechanism of panoptic control commentary on Jennifer A. Schlossberg’s (2015) Narratives and discursive discipline in prison: Rewriting personal histories through cognitive-behavioral programs. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 8(2), 148–159.Kamarulzaman, A., Reid, S. E., Schwitters, A., Wiessing, L., El-Bassel, N., Dolan, K., . . . Altice, F. L. (2016). Prevention of transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis in prisoners. The Lancet, 388(10049), 1115–1126. Criminal Justice Case Studies: Corrections, Week 4 (PDF)

Required Media

Abrams, E. (2017, November). The human stories behind mass incarceration [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/eve_abrams_the_human_stories_behind_mass_incarceration


Discussion: Supermax Prisons

A supermax prison is a maximum-security facility that houses the most dangerous criminal offenders. Inmates such as Zacarias Moussaoui (9/11 attacks), Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (Boston Marathon bomber), and Ted Kaczynski (Unabomber) are confined to small, concrete cells for 23 hours per day with very little human contact. Supporters of supermax prisons argue that extensive measures must be taken to punish and protect the public against the most violent and dangerous criminals. Critics argue that supermax prisons are too expensive to build and maintain and that conditions are inhumane.

In this Discussion, you will consider arguments for and against the use of supermax prisons.

By Day 3

Post a response that addresses the following:

Provide an argument for or against the use of supermax prisons. In your argument, be sure to consider the following issues related to the use of supermax prisons:

  • The safety of the public, prison employees, and the general inmate population
  • The control and order over inmates in the prisons
  • The conditions and punishments in the prisons
  • The rehabilitation of inmates, their successful reentry into the community, and their likelihood of recidivating
  • The costs of building and managing the prisons

By Day 5

Respond to at least two colleagues:

  • Choose a response that is different from your own.
  • Respectfully challenge or add to your colleague’s argument.    

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 4 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:Week 4 Discussion


Assignment: Managing Prisons—Best Practices and Policy Reform

Prison administrators are responsible for protecting the public from criminal offenders, ensuring the safety of prison employees and inmates, and providing inmates with adequate shelter, food, and medical care. Meeting these responsibilities is difficult even without the added challenges of overcrowding, the spread of infectious diseases, and the proliferation of mental illness in prisons.

In the Learning Resources and Discussion this week, you examined some of the issues and challenges facing the contemporary prison system. For this Assignment, you will build on and demonstrate your learning in this area by applying best practices, guidelines, and reform initiatives to a case study about a prison in crisis.    

By Day 7

The warden has asked you to devise a plan to address the emerging issues and challenges described in the case study found in the document, Criminal Justice Case Studies: Corrections, Week 4.

Submit a 750- to 800-word plan that includes the following:

  • Explain the best practices you would implement, in the short-term, to address the issues and challenges described in the case study. (250–300 words)
  • Analyze ethical and legal issues/standards you would take into consideration before implementing your plan. (250 words)
  • Explain at least three significant policy changes you would recommend to reduce overcrowding and improve prison conditions in the long-term. (250 words)

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 4 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 4 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 4 Assignment


Journal: Is Rehabilitation Worth It?

Can criminals be rehabilitated, or are they doomed to a life of crime? Are some types of offenders more likely to be rehabilitated than others? Are some types of treatment and rehabilitation programs more effective than others? Clearly, these are not easy questions to answer, but they do provide important insights into how the correctional system should operate.

In this Journal, you consider circumstances under which rehabilitation is effective and ineffective. You also examine whether the cost of rehabilitation is worth it.

By Day 7

Write a 300-word Journal response to the following prompts:

  • Under what circumstances is rehabilitation effective?
  • Under what circumstances is rehabilitation ineffective?
  • Is the cost of rehabilitation worth it? Why or why not?

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Journal for review and grading, do the following:

  • Click the Week 4 Journal Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 4 Journal link. 
  • Next, click Create Journal Link.
  • In the title box, enter the title of the Journal Entry. Please title it: WK4Journal+last name+first initial.
  • In the Entry Message box, type your Journal Entry or click Browse My Computer and select the document you saved as “WK4Journal+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • Click Post Entry.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 4 Journal Rubric

Submit Your Journal by Day 7

To submit your Journal:Week 4 Journal


Week in Review

This week, you examined issues and challenges related to the contemporary prison system. You also considered how specific correctional practices can be applied to address those issues and challenges.

Next week, you explore community-based alternatives to incarceration, such as diversion, probation, and parole. You also consider issues and challenges related to offender reintegration into society.

Next Week

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 3: Correctional Philosophies and Theories

Week 3: Correctional Philosophies and Theories

Over the past two weeks, you explored the history and evolution of the correctional system. This week, you focus on correctional philosophies and theories related to sentencing.

There are four philosophical orientations that apply to the sentencing process:

  • retribution (does the punishment fit the crime?);  
  • deterrence (does the punishment prevent future crimes?);
  • incapacitation (does the punishment protect the public from the worst offenders?); and
  • rehabilitation (does the punishment offer opportunities to change for the better?).

In theory, the philosophical orientations offer a useful framework for determining the most appropriate sentence and sanctions for a given crime. In practice, however, the application of such orientations has the potential to be misguided and inherently flawed, posing significant threats to justice, fairness, and equality in the correctional system. This week, you consider these many factors in correctional philosophy.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Compare sentencing structures, sanctions, and sentencing disparity across different states
  • Evaluate the proportionality of sentencing structures and sanctions
  • Analyze factors that contribute to sentencing disparity
  • Apply philosophical orientations, concepts, and theories of corrections to a case study
  • Apply strategies to reduce racial bias and discrimination in the correctional system    

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Hanser, R. D. (2017). Introduction to corrections (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 2, “Ideological and Theoretical Underpinnings to Sentencing and Correctional Policy” (pp. 28–49)Introduction to Corrections, 2nd Edition by Hanser, R. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Krisberg, B. A., Marchionna, S., & Hartney, C. J. (2018). American corrections: Concepts and controversies  (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 3, “The Purpose of Punishment and Sentencing Trends” (pp. 44–68)American Corrections: Concepts and Controversies, 2nd Edition by Krisberg, B. A.; Marchionna, S.; Hartney, C. J. Copyright 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 5, “Sentencing: The Application of Punishment” (pp. 80–107)Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Stohr, M. K., & Walsh, A. (2017). Corrections: The essentials (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 12, “Minorities and Corrections” (pp. 260–283)
Corrections: The Essentials, 3rd Edition by Stohr, M. K.; Walsh, A. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Barnes, J. C., & Motz, R. T. (2018). Reducing racial inequalities in adulthood arrest by reducing inequalities in school discipline: Evidence from the school-to-prison pipeline. Developmental Psychology, 54(12), 2328–2340. 

For this article, skip the Methods and Results sections on pages 4–8.
Leibovitch, A. (2017). Punishing on a curve. Northwestern University Law Review, 111(5), 1205–1280.

For this article, read pages 1213–1242 about causes of sentencing disparities.
The New York Times Editorial Board (2015, October 23). Wrongly profiled and deported. The New York Times.Criminal Justice Case Studies: Corrections, Week 3 (PDF)

Required Media

Goffman, A. (2015, March). How we’re priming some kids for college—and others for prison [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/alice_goffman_college_or_prison_two_destinies_one_blatant_injusticeSerial Productions. (Producer). (2018). Serial: You’ve got some Gauls [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://serialpodcast.org/season-three/2/youve-got-some-gauls

Optional Resources

Rich, S. (2016). Corporate criminals and punishment theory. The Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 29(1), 97–118. http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1017/cjlj.2016.4    


Discussion: Sentencing and Sanctions—Proportionality and Disparity

Does the punishment fit the crime? This is one of the enduring questions in the study and practice of corrections. Generally, the public appreciates a “tough on crime” approach and politicians follow suit by implementing harsher punishments while promising to make communities safer. However, the “tough on crime” approach can have unintended consequences, one of which is that punishments can be disproportionate to the crime committed. A complicating factor is that sentencing structures vary by state; therefore, the same crime committed in two different states could result in vastly different sentences and sanctions.

In this Discussion, you will consider how sentencing structures and sanctions for drug-related offenses vary by state, the degree to which sentences and sanctions are proportionate for drug-related offenses, and the factors that contribute to sentencing disparity.

By Day 3

Post a response that addresses the following:

  • What is the sentencing structure for drug offenses in your state?
  • What types of sanctions are used for drug convictions in your state?
  • Are the sentencing structure and sanctions proportionate to the crime? Why or why not?
  • What factors might contribute to sentencing disparity among drug offenders in your state? 

By Day 5

Respond to two colleagues who live in a different state than you do.

  • Compare sentencing structures and sanctions in your state with your colleagues’ states.
  • What insights or conclusions can you draw about sentencing disparity based on your comparison? 

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 3 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:Week 3 Discussion


Assignment: Philosophical Orientations and Theories of Corrections

In the 1970s, there was a movement to enact mandatory sentencing laws, which forced judges to give fixed sentences for specific crimes. Critics of such laws argue that each criminal case is unique and that mitigating factors such as the offender’s age, background, criminal history, mental health, and many others should be considered in context.

In this Assignment, you write a paper that provides the opportunity for you to demonstrate your understanding of philosophical orientations and theories related to sentencing and sanctioning offenders. Begin by reading the case study found in the document, Criminal Justice Case Studies: Corrections, Week 3. Pay particular attention to how the offender’s mitigating factors may influence your approach to sentencing and sanctions. 

By Day 7

Submit a 950- to 1,050-word paper in which you address the following:

  • What biological, psychological, or social factors could be used to explain the case study offender’s criminal background? What theories might account for the offender’s behavior? (250 words)
  • How would you sentence the offender for the crimes committed? (450–550 words) Be sure to address:
    • What philosophical orientation(s) would guide your decision making about sentencing?
    • What mitigating factors and/or aggravating circumstances would you consider when deciding on sentencing
    • What type of sentence would you recommend and why?
    • What sanctions would you recommend and why?
  • Do you think the offender is likely to reoffend after completing their sentence? Why or why not? Support your argument with evidence from the Learning Resources. You may also incorporate relevant professional experience. (250 words)

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 3 Assignment Rubric

Check Your Assignment Draft for Authenticity

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 3 Assignment draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 7

To submit your Assignment:Week 3 Assignment


Journal: Bias and Discrimination in the Correctional System

The correctional system does not exist in a vacuum. Racial bias and discrimination that exists in society also finds its way into the correctional system. A number of studies provide strong evidence that racial minorities receive harsher sentences and represent a disproportionate segment of the prison population. Young, African-American males are especially vulnerable to this epidemic.

In this Journal, you reflect on your own experiences and awareness of racial bias and discrimination in the correctional system as well as on strategies for reducing both.    

By Day 7

Write a 300-word Journal response to the following prompts:

  • Discuss ways in which you experience, witness, or are aware of racial bias and discrimination in the correctional system.
  • Describe at least two strategies you would use as a criminal justice practitioner to reduce racial bias and discrimination in the correctional system. Address any barriers that might arise. 

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Journal for review and grading, do the following:

  • Click the Week 3 Journal Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Journal link. 
  • Next, click Create Journal Link.
  • In the title box, enter the title of the Journal Entry. Please title it: WK3Journal+last name+first initial.
  • In the Entry Message box, type your Journal Entry or click Browse My Computer and select the document you saved as “WK3Journal+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • Click Post Entry.
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 3 Journal Rubric

Submit Your Journal by Day 7

To submit your Journal:Week 3 Journal


Week in Review

This week, you considered the philosophical orientations and theories that apply to the sentencing process.

Next week, you examine issues and challenges related to the contemporary prison system. You also consider how specific correctional practices can be applied to address those issues and challenges. 

Next Week

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 1: Introduction to Corrections

Week 1: Introduction to Corrections

After a criminal offender is arrested by a law enforcement officer and sentenced by a judge or jury, he or she enters the correctional system. Today’s correctional system is a network of agencies designed to carry out court-ordered punishments, rehabilitate criminal offenders, and, if necessary, ensure that the worst criminal offenders remain separated from the rest of society. The responsibility to carry out the most severe punishments, such as life in prison or the death penalty, while maintaining control over incarcerated offenders is challenging and not without controversy.

This week, you will begin your exploration of the correctional system by considering the history and evolution of two important topics: punishments and prison conditions.    

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Summarize the historical origins and evolution of prison conditions and punishments
  • Evaluate the constitutionality of historical and contemporary prison conditions and punishments

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Hanser, R. D. (2017). Introduction to corrections (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.Chapter 1, “Early History of Punishment and the Development of Prisons in the United States” (pp. xxviii–27)Introduction to Corrections, 2nd Edition by Hanser, R. Copyright 2017 by SAGE Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Braatz, E. E. (2016). The Eighth Amendment’s milieu: Penal reform in the late eighteenth century. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 106(3), 405–472.Reiter, K. (2016). Reclaiming the power to punish: Legislating and administrating the California supermax, 1982–1989. Law & Society Review, 50(2), 484–518.


Discussion: Prison Conditions and Punishments

The first prison in the United States opened in 1790. Shortly thereafter, in 1791, the Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution was established, which includes a clause against the use of “cruel and unusual punishment.” The court’s interpretation of this clause has evolved over time, just as punishments and prison conditions have evolved. Some punishments and prison conditions have been deemed “cruel and unusual” while others have not.

For this Discussion, select one of the following topics to discuss in terms of its history and evolution within the correctional system and the degree to which the Eighth Amendment applies:

  • Prison conditions (access to fresh air, light, and medical care, sanitation and hygiene, and overcrowding)
  • Punishments (hard labor, corporal punishment, solitary confinement, capital punishment)

By Day 3

Post a response that addresses the following:

  • Summarize briefly the historical origins and evolution of the topic you selected (prison conditions or punishments).
  • Would any of the conditions or punishments you described violate the Eighth Amendment’s clause of cruel and unusual punishment? Why or why not?
  • Support your argument with evidence from the Learning Resources. You may also incorporate relevant professional experience.

By Day 5

Respond to at least two colleagues:

  • Respond to colleagues who chose a different topic than you did.
  • Respectfully agree or disagree with their argument regarding violations of the Eighth Amendment.    

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 5

To participate in this Discussion:Week 1 Discussion


Week in Review

This week, you began your exploration of the correctional system by considering the history and evolution of two important topics: punishments and prison conditions.

Next week, you broaden your focus by considering the full history of corrections, how it has evolved, and how it has influenced the contemporary correctional practices.

Next Week

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 6: Financial Statements Used in Accounting (continued)

Week 6: Financial Statements Used in Accounting (continued)

While this course is self-directed, it is important that you work on course assignments regularly to keep from falling behind and leaving the majority of the coursework until the end of the term. The Interactive Unit(s) that pertain to this week are, Unit 3: Financial Statements Used in Accounting. You also participate in a Discussion related to your thoughts on the notes to financial statements and the auditor’s report. Lastly, you will complete your final exam.


Learning Resources

Required Readings

Interactive Units

Laureate Education. (2019). ACCT 1004S: Accounting Fundamentals [Lecture Notes]. Retrieved from Laureate Education, Inc.: https://class.waldenu.eduInteractive Unit 3: Financial Statements Used in Accounting


Discussion: Uses of the Notes to the Financial Statements and the Auditor’s Report

The auditor’s report is a vital component in the reporting of financial information to third-party users. For instance, businesses can utilize an auditor’s report to attract investors, obtain loans, or improve public appearance.

To complete this Discussion:

Think about the following:

  1. The purpose and functions of the notes to the financial statements
  2. The auditor’s report, which are both in the annual report

What significant information is included in the auditor’s report? What crucial information to completely understanding the financial statements could be included in the notes to the financial statements?

By Day 7 of Week 5

Post a response that expresses your thoughts on:

  1. The uses of the notes to the financial statements
  2. The significant information found in the auditor’s report

The length of your response(s) must be a minimum of 150 words.

By Day 5 of Week 6

Post one response to a classmate’s post or to an Instructor follow-up post. As you write your response, consider doing the following:

  • Ask a probing question based on something your classmate said.
  • Share an insight from having read the posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your classmate’s posting.

Your response post must be a minimum of 150 words.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5-6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 7 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 5 of Week 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 5-6 Discussion


Final Exam

This exam will assess your understanding of the concepts you learned in Interactive Unit 3 of this course.

Good luck on your Exam!

Submission and Grading Information

Submit Your Exam

To submit your Exam:Final Exam – Week 6


Week in Review

This week, you continued completing Interactive Units.

Congratulations! After you have finished all of the assignments for this module, you have completed the course. Please submit your Course Evaluation by Day 7.

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 5: Financial Statements Used in Accounting (continued)

Week 5: Financial Statements Used in Accounting (continued)

While this course is self-directed, it is important that you work on course assignments regularly to keep from falling behind and leaving the majority of the coursework until the end of the term. The Interactive Unit(s) that pertain to this week are, Unit 3: Financial Statements Used in Accounting.


Learning Resources

Required Readings

Interactive Units

Laureate Education. (2019). ACCT 1004S: Accounting Fundamentals [Lecture Notes]. Retrieved from Laureate Education, Inc.: https://class.waldenu.eduInteractive Unit 3: Financial Statements Used in Accounting


Discussion: Uses of the Notes to the Financial Statements and the Auditor’s Report

The auditor’s report is a vital component in the reporting of financial information to third-party users. For instance, businesses can utilize an auditor’s report to attract investors, obtain loans, or improve public appearance.

To complete this Discussion:

Think about the following:

  1. The purpose and functions of the notes to the financial statements
  2. The auditor’s report, which are both in the annual report

What significant information is included in the auditor’s report? What crucial information to completely understanding the financial statements could be included in the notes to the financial statements?

By Day 7 of Week 5

Post a response that expresses your thoughts on:

  1. The uses of the notes to the financial statements
  2. The significant information found in the auditor’s report

The length of your response(s) must be a minimum of 150 words.

By Day 5 of Week 6

Post one response to a classmate’s post or to an Instructor follow-up post. As you write your response, consider doing the following:

  • Ask a probing question based on something your classmate said.
  • Share an insight from having read the posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your classmate’s posting.

Your response post must be a minimum of 150 words.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 5–6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 7 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 5 of Week 6

To participate in this Discussion:Week 5–6 Discussion


Week in Review

This week, you continued completing Interactive Units.

In the next week, you will continue working on the Interactive Units.

Next Week

Categories
ACCT 1004S: Fundamentals of Accounting

Week 2: The Accounting Profession

Week 2: The Accounting Profession

While this course is self-directed, it is important that you work on course assignments regularly to keep from falling behind and leaving the majority of the coursework until the end of the term. The Interactive Unit(s) that pertain to this week are, Unit 1: The Accounting Profession. You also participate in a Discussion related to the differences between GAAP and IFRS.


Learning Resources

Required Readings

Interactive Units

Laureate Education. (2019). ACCT 1004S: Accounting Fundamentals [Lecture Notes]. Retrieved from Laureate Education, Inc.: https://class.waldenu.eduInteractive Unit 1: The Accounting Profession


Discussion: Discuss the Differences Between GAAP and IFRS

Accountants are responsible for following standards, conventions, and rules in order to ensure ethical accounting in their day-to-day practices. However, the rules in the United States vary from those followed in other countries. The United States uses what is called U.S. GAAP. “GAAP” stands for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Most of the rest of the world uses what is called International Financial Reporting Standards known simply as “IFRS.” The United States is in the process of either converting or converging U.S. GAAP with IFRS.

To complete this Discussion:

  1. Using your preferred search engine (such as Google), enter one or more of the following keywords:
    • IFRS
    • U.S. GAAP conversion
    • U.S. GAAP convergence
    • U.S. GAAP v. IFRS
  2. Using what you’ve learned in the interactive course content along with the results of your Internet keyword search, focus on and deeply explore the differences between GAAP and IFRS. Consider not only written articles, but also video lecture search results, which you can find by doing your keyword search on YouTube.com. Be sure to critically evaluate the sources that you encounter in your Internet search. Are they reliable? Are they current?
  3. Post an initial response along with responses to others’ posts, following the directions shown below

By Day 5

Post a response of at least 150 words in which you discuss the differences between GAAP and IFRS. As you write your post, consider the following:

  • What are implications of the differences in these two different financial reporting systems?
  • What are two benefits and two challenges with each?

By Day 7

Post one response to a classmate’s post or to an Instructor follow-up post. As you write your response, consider doing the following:

  • Ask a probing question based on something your classmate said.
  • Share an insight from having read the posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your classmate’s posting.

Your response post should be a minimum of 150 words.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:Week 2 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 5 and Respond by Day 7

To participate in this Discussion:Week 2 Discussion


Week in Review

This week, you continued completing Interactive Units. You also participate in a Discussion related to the differences between GAAP and IFRS.

In the next week, you will continue working on the Interactive Units.